Most Recent Knowledge Shared from the Network

June 6, 2017

Fast-Track and Human Rights: Advancing Human Rights in Efforts to Accelerate the Response to HIV

"Human rights barriers - including stigma, discrimination, violence and other abuses, negative social attitudes, and legal obstacles - contribute to the vulnerability to HIV..."

November 25, 2015

On the Fast-Track to End AIDS: UNAIDS 2016 - 2021 Strategy

This document outlines the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2016-2021 strategy to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The strategy maps out the UNAIDS Fast-...

November 25, 2015

On the Fast-Track to End AIDS: UNAIDS 2016 - 2021 Strategy

This document outlines the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2016-2021 strategy to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The strategy maps out the UNAIDS Fast-...

Anonymous
November 23, 2015

Statement by UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka

Author: Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, November 20 2015, on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, 25 November: Across the world, violence against women and...

October 29, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Final Report

"The qualitative data from listening clubs showed that youth believe good communication with their parents has a big influence on their behaviours and can help them to make healthier and more...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

July 27, 2015

A Short Technical Update on Self-Testing for HIV

"HIV self‑testing may provide people with an additional pathway to HIV prevention, care and treatment." This document is designed "to synthesize experiences, research and policies on HIV self‑...

Syndicate content

15 to 19 years

The 15 to 19 years category age group category required by UNICEF Adolescent Health

Women and girl's rights in Sierra Leone: Let Us Know!

No votes yet

Author: Olabisi Olu Garrick, February 23 2015 - Despite my fourteen years as a journalist, I didn’t always want to work in the media. I actually wanted to be a lawyer.

The ability to hold people to account and help people understand their legal rights always appealed to me. Little did I know that a chance meeting with a woman one sunny afternoon would change my life.

Post new comment

Digital Reach

No votes yet

Working with 12 delivery partners, Nominet Trust is supporting six pilot projects in the United Kingdom (UK) to test a range of new models to meaningfully improve the digital skills, confidence, and resilience of young people aged 15-24 who lack basic digital skills. Nominet Trust research conducted in early 2017 found that these young people are also the most likely to be facing multiple forms of disadvantage that make them among the hardest to reach.

Communication Strategies: 

Launched in June 2017, this evidence-based programme aims to engage 4,000 young people through three key design components:

  1. Leveraging the expertise of youth organisations that have trusted one-on-one relationships with young people to lead on digital skills provision and to incorporate it into the delivery of their existing services.
  2. Piloting a variety of models with a consortium of expert youth organisations to understand which approaches are most effective in overcoming the factors inhibiting digital skills acquisition.
  3. Exploring how digital skills can be embedded in the acquisition of other skills, including literacy, numeracy, and social skills, rather than being taught as a standalone subject.

Over a nine-month period, the following organisations will be working on the following pilots, in association with Nominet:

  • Action for Children (ACF) will digitise their current paper-based content across three employability programmes in severely deprived urban areas in Scotland. Supporting some of the hardest-to-reach young people in the area, the pilot will aim to enable them to complete their qualifications online and ensure they develop the capability and confidence to use the internet to look for jobs and complete pre-employability training.
  • Carers Trust will work with Good Things Foundation to develop an e-learning resource for young adult carers as an extension to Learn My Way (a tool for digital skills delivered through libraries and community organisations). The website contains over 30 free courses designed to help beginners get started with the online basics - using a mouse, keyboard, setting up email accounts and using internet search engines - while also offering material to help people develop their digital skills further. Eight Carers Trust Network Partners will use the resource to help young adult carers gain the basic digital skills they need to achieve their aspirations.
  • Home-Start and #techmums will collaborate to help 500 young mothers acquire basic digital skills to overcome the challenges they face in their daily lives.
  • The Children's Society and City & Guilds Group will engage 550 young people across the Midlands and the North of England by helping them to improve their digital skills through accredited course development.
  • UK Youth will create Digital Hubs in 10 member organisations, training a youth worker and three young people to become Digital Champions. They will then work with referral and outreach partners to support the most isolated young people that are engaged with the Digital Hubs.
  • Wales Co-Operative Centre will work with YMCA Swansea, Llamau, and GISDA to engage 375 of the "hardest to reach" young people across Wales through a series of workshops and by incorporating digital literacy into existing life skills programmes.

To deliver shareable insights about social impact, evaluation is an integral part of Digital Reach. Nominet Trust is working with Dr. Ellen Helsper, Associate Professor at the London School of Economics and Political Science and digital engagement expert, to develop an evaluation framework and validate key findings.

Development Issues: 

Technology, Youth

Key Points: 

The Basic Digital Skills UK 2017 report suggests that, despite an overall increase in the number of UK adults who have gained basic digital skills, at least 3% (300,000) of those aged 15-24 are still left behind. The research identified three key barriers to developing basic digital skills:

  • Personal skills barriers: Factors such as poor literacy and numeracy can prevent young people from using digital technology for formal communications such as job applications.
  • Cicumstantial barriers: Household poverty and poor credit ratings can deny access to home broadband; long-term family health conditions can mean peer and formal support to use technology are not readily accessible.
  • Systemic barriers: Young people living in households with intergenerational unemployment can lack motivation to develop digital skills through formal training programmes.

Nominet Trust research also found that these barriers are intensified by disruption to the lives of young people including experience of the care and criminal justice system, moving home, family breakups, and addiction or violence in the household.

Source: 

Slimline C4D Network Twitter Trawl: 3 - 9 July 2017; "DIGITAL REACH: Digital skills for the hardest-to-reach young people" [PDF]; and "Nominet Trust is investing in the digital future of the disadvantaged youth", by Derek du Preez, diginomica, July 10 2017 - all accessed on July 10 2017. Image credit: Better Internet for Kids

Post new comment

Let's talk about sex: using radio to educate teenagers in Bangladesh

No votes yet

Author: Gourob Kundu, originally posted June 30 2017 - Our world is home to 1.8 billion young people. The majority of these 10 to 24-year-olds live in Asia, with 48 million alone growing up in Bangladesh.  

Our world is home to 1.8 billion young people. The majority of these 10 to 24-year-olds live in Asia, with 48 million alone growing up in Bangladesh.  

Post new comment

Hitting the road to reach young Cambodian job-seekers

No votes yet

Author: My Sovann, BBC Media Action Communications coordinator, Cambodia, originally published June 23 2017 - "I feel so excited about the roadshow, I have never ever seen an educational event like this in my village" shouts high school student Youm Piseth over the noise of our Klahan9 roadshow in Takeo province, Cambodia.

He is just the kind of person we want to reach and inspire.

Young Cambodians face high levels of unemployment. There’s stiff competition for jobs and a lack of career guidance and vocational training. Those in work are often on low wages, informal contracts and obligated to work long hours with insufficient on-the-job training.

Often young people want to migrate to cities or overseas but don’t know enough to make the necessary preparations or take informed employment decisions.

Post new comment

How is a Radio Programme Helping Bangladeshi Youth Cope with the Challenges of Adolescence?

No votes yet
Publication Date
April 1, 2017

"Qualitative research found that radio magazine show Dosh Unisher Mor (Crossroads at 10 to 19) [from BBC Media Action] provided adolescents with a much-needed source of information on topics deemed taboo, such as sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and gender based violence (GBV). In addition to acquiring knowledge, listeners reported attitudinal changes and increased confidence to tackle related problems. However, adolescents and parents were still reluctant to discuss these issues."

Source: 

BBC Media Action website, June 21 2017.

Post new comment

How can communication help stop teenagers dying?

No votes yet

Author: BBC Media Action Health Adviser Emebet Wuhib-Mutungi, originally post June 5 2017 - While the election of Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus as the next director general of the World Health Organization (WHO) has been accompanied by some controversy, I’ve been heartened by one of his top five priorities for when he assumes his new post. Dr Tedros has pledged to put the wellbeing of adolescents, alongside women and children, at the very centre of global health and development.

Post new comment

PASSA Juventud : Enfoque participativo para hacer conciencia sobre los refugios seguros

No votes yet

“Si el programa PASSA Juventud es sistemática y correctamente utilizado provocará cambios de comportamiento importantes, los jóvenes necesitan tomar plena propiedad del proceso, esto sólo sucederá si son tratados como seres autónomos y no como niños que dependen de las decisiones de los demás”. Sandra D'URZO

Communication Strategies: 

Ela Serdaroglu, líder del refugio de la FICR, dice: "La innovación está en el corazón de PASSA juventud, incluyendo el uso de recursos digitales y de nuevos medios para conectarse, compartir y participar. Las tecnologías digitales aumentan la capacidad de resistencia cuando se producen desastres y crisis. Además  desarrollan la capacidad de los jóvenes (líderes, voluntarios, miembros de las comunidades afectadas) para entender  los riesgos específicos relacionados con el hábitat, articulando sus prioridades y opciones a sus homólogos adultos " PASSA juventud utiliza métodos participativos, que la FICR ha demostrado que son muy eficaces en el trabajo con las comunidades.”

• Permiten a cualquiera contribuir al análisis y a la planificación como iguales, sin importar su edad, género, clase social o nivel de educación.

• Construyen autoestima, respeto por otros miembros del grupo y un sentido de responsabilidad individual y colectiva en la toma de decisiones.

• Desarrollan la comprensión y el respeto de las capacidades y los conocimientos locales, al tiempo que contribuyen a difundir las innovaciones generadas por la comunidad, haciendo su adopción más fácil y valorada.

• Son divertidos y gratificantes para los facilitadores y, en el caso de los voluntarios de la Cruz Roja y de la Media Luna Roja, fomentan una nueva y positiva relación con los miembros de la comunidad

La FICR explica que la aparición de herramientas digitales que facilitan la comunicación y la colaboración ha enriquecido las metodologías participativas y ha ampliado el enfoque de las comunidades y los asuntos locales trascendiendo a los asuntos mundiales. Las actividades juveniles de PASSA utilizan medios múltiples estrechamente conectados para que los jóvenes se muevan de un medio  a otro con facilidad. A partir de la oralidad y la memoria colectiva, seguidas por la cartografía creativa y el periodismo comunitario, los jóvenes usan una variedad de herramientas para recopilar datos sobre su comunidad en formatos multimedia, a partir de lo cual se ha aprendido que el uso de narraciones transmedia es ideal. Las actividades se potencian con la adición de un componente interactivo a PASSA juventud , cristalizado en la Pista Digital. http://passa.ifrc.org/

Por ejemplo, el perfil histórico se mejora con la construcción de una línea de tiempo digital y mapas de la comunidad con códigos QR (Quick Response- respuesta rápida)

En la práctica, PASSA juventud es un proceso facilitado por voluntarios capacitados que orientan a un grupo comunitario (llamado Grupo PASSA) de 15 a 30 líderes juveniles a través de 8 actividades participativas que permiten a los jóvenes hacer lo siguiente progresivamente:

• Desarrollar conciencia sobre los problemas de seguridad de las construcciones de su comunidad.

• Identificar peligros y vulnerabilidades de las construcciones.

• Analizar las causas de la vulnerabilidad de las construcciones.

• Priorizar estrategias potenciales para mejorar la seguridad de las construcciones.

• Poner en práctica esas estrategias de seguridad en albergues y comunidades.

• Implementar mejoras basadas en las capacidades locales.

Cada actividad dura aproximadamente 4 horas. Las 8 actividades se reparten en el transcurso de 2 a 8 semanas.

Diseñado para crear iniciativas inspiradoras y poderosas impulsadas por la juventud, PASSA juventud puede ser usado como una herramienta para iniciar una acción inmediata – realizando eventos de estilo flash mob y llamando la atención sobre la seguridad del vecindario, así como para permitir progresivamente cambios duraderos en las comunidades. El programa también puede considerarse una herramienta para avanzar desde la fase de socorro hasta soluciones de reconstrucción más duraderas. Tanto en situaciones pre-desastre como post-desastre, la herramienta permitirá a los jóvenes expresar preocupaciones y demandas, y dirigir sus planes en resultados realistas y sostenibles. El arte juega un papel fundamental en este proceso - demostrando técnicas y promoviendo que los jóvenes se expresen y comuniquen las lecciones aprendidas a la comunidad.

PASSA juventud está diseñado para apoyar programas para mejorar la seguridad de comunidades y refugios y así reducir el riesgo de desastres. Por tanto, está estrechamente relacionado con la evaluación de la vulnerabilidad y la capacidad (VCA) y, a menudo, puede basarse en un VCA en el que el refugio se identifica como una fuente de riesgo. Es importante reconocer y basarse en los programas comunitarios que se han desarrollado previamente en cada país, en particular los que involucran a los jóvenes. Este programa se puede implementar en diferentes etapas dentro del ciclo de manejo de desastres:

• Preparación y mitigación: se utiliza como una herramienta para la reducción del riesgo de vivienda una vez que VCA ha identificado los riesgos relacionados con el hábitat y el entorno construido.

• Desde el socorro hasta la recuperación: proporciona el marco para crear soluciones de vivienda duradera al integrar el conocimiento de riesgo a nivel comunitario (medidas de mitigación de sitios, técnicas resistentes a desastres, etc.).

• Fase de recuperación: Al final de la fase de recuperación, PASSA juventud sirve para abordar temas de vivienda y asentamientos no cubiertos por el programa y se basa en las capacidades adquiridas. También permite a la comunidad acercarse a otros actores y presionar a los gobiernos locales sobre asuntos de interés común.

Para ello, los programas de refugio y juventud de la Sociedad Nacional y aliados como Hábitat para la Humanidad llevan a cabo actividades como las siguientes: capacitar, supervisar y apoyar a los voluntarios; Suministrar los materiales, espacio para reuniones y equipo necesario; Desarrollar el paquete de ilustraciones de PASSA juventud con un artista local antes y durante las actividades; Discutir y dar retroalimentación sobre los informes sobre la implementación y los resultados ; Informar a las partes interesadas locales del proceso ; Coordinar con las autoridades locales y otras partes interesadas para respaldar las necesidades de la comunidad; Involucrarse cuando sea necesario si surgen problemas más allá de la capacidad de los voluntarios ; Y proporcionar apoyo técnico esencial en la seguridad de los refugios y comunidades.

La FICR considera que la Cruz Roja , Media Luna Roja y aliados como Hábitat para la Humanidad, así como las herramientas de preparación para desastres como planes de contingencia a nivel local y municipal deberían incorporar a PASSA juventud como práctica estándar y usarla como herramienta para la seguridad de refugios. Este programa debe ser considerado como una herramienta que refuerza tanto un "componente de software" -es decir, el desarrollo de conocimientos y habilidades dentro de la comunidad- y un "componente de hardware" que conduce al mejoramiento físico de la vivienda y la infraestructura.

 

 

 

 

Development Issues: 

Juventud, Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres, Medio Ambiente

 

Key Points: 

PASSA juventud es un método participativo de reducción del riesgo de desastres (DRR) relacionado con la seguridad de los refugios y las comunidades. Es una variación de la Transformación Participativa en Higiene y Saneamiento (PHAST), que ha sido utilizada por muchas Sociedades Nacionales de la Cruz Roja y la Media Luna Roja en programas de agua y saneamiento desde fines de los años noventa. A su vez éste programa se basa en un enfoque participativo llamado SARAR que significa autoestima, fortalezas asociativas, ingenio, planificación de la acción y responsabilidad. PASSA juventud es una variación del programa PASSA original

Partner Text: 

IFRC, Habitat for Humanity

See video
Source: 

Post new comment

Tech Age Girls (TAG)

No votes yet

"[E]fforts to improve girls' potential must go beyond training and start creating an ecosystem in which skills can be maximized. This means addressing leadership and self-confidence, creating support networks, developing allies and advocates, and instilling an understanding of how to assess needs and conceive ways to address them in communities and in the business world." - Myahriban Karyagdyyeva (Mehri) and Ari Katz, IREX

IREX's Tech Age Girls (TAG) programme provides young women with specialised leadership and information technology (IT) training, mentors, and hands-on opportunities to become positive agents of change in their communities. Broadly, TAG addresses the systemic underrepresentation of women in the IT field and promotes the online presence of girls’ voices in local languages. Launched in 2005, IREX has been implemented in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Myanmar, the Philippines, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

Communication Strategies: 

TAG works to empower girls within a community of support. Participants are self-selected throughout different stages of the project based on their participation, completion of projects, and level of activity. The most dedicated participants are identified through this process and graduate to the final stage of the programme. TAG connects girls to women role models, places them in internships, and plugs them into an alumni network and community. Technology is not taught for the sake of technology, but rather used as a tool for empowering girls, building their self-esteem, giving them confidence, and building connections through alumni networking.

TAG participants attend events that enable them to discover new abilities, develop technical and professional skills, and gain the confidence and inspiration necessary to become leaders in their communities. Participants cover a curriculum of digital and leadership skills development, ranging from graphic design and communication skills to problem solving. TAG's curriculum does not involve traditional lectures or tests. Instead, participants work in collaborative small groups on different tasks that use technology to create useful products. Supported by a network of peers, they apply the skills they have learned in outreach to their communities. Participants have led digital skills training for community members and local teachers and formed groups to raise awareness about gender issues and the benefit of access to digital skills.

Specifically, the TAG model has 3 phases that take place over 1 year:

  • Phase One lasts up to 6 months, during which time participants receive training to strengthen their leadership, information and communication technology (ICT), and "soft skills" while forming an in-person and online community. For example, they explore positive communication, active listening, principles of storytelling, and how to write success stories with good pictures/reports, including group work on stories. They research pressing community needs, then design and conduct service projects to meet those needs with support from TAG staff and local mentors.
  • Phase Two focuses on how the technology tools learned in Phase One can be applied to community service and leadership as well as to improve individual economic and employment opportunities. It brings the highest achievers to a one- to two-week in-person workshop in a major city, where girls participate in advanced technology and leadership training (e.g., they learn to create a storyboard from start to finish and create a shareable story using Comphone), perform short internships at domestic and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or government offices, and meet influential, national-level women leaders. Additional activities in this phase include: interactive panels and debates with women role models in a variety of fields, including civil society, politics, and entrepreneurship; guest speakers who introduce girls to new ideas and opportunities for applying their skills; project presentations designed to give girls the opportunity to practice their public speaking skills in front of peers and mentors; excursions that expose girls to parts of their country they may have never before experienced and that provide the girls the opportunity to strengthen their peer networks; and an award ceremony to highlight and celebrate the achievements of the participants.
  • Phase Three begins when participants return to their communities to continue or expand local projects such as training their peers in key technology and soft skills, remaining linked to the TAG network of young women leaders. Each community project is designed and adapted to the local context, and responds directly to community needs identified by TAG participants. Each project reaches an average of 30 people and touches on many aspects of community life, including public service, environment, and education. For example, 35 students were taught in an informal learning programme led by a TAG participant in a village in Magway, Myanmar. To make her project more effective, she advocated for solar panels for lighting, writing materials, and technology to enhance learning. In Kyrgyzstan, a group of 5 Tech Age Girls trained political party representatives on new communication tools: "I am only 16 years old, but I was able to work with politicians in our country....[After] working with female politicians, I know that politics is not only for men...," noted one of the trainers, who had been a TAG participant in 2011. Tran Le Khanh Linh, a 2012 TAG from Vietnam, organised trainings on leadership and basic IT skills for 60 of her classmates, while her fellow TAG peer Trinh Hoai Huong trained members of the journalism club at her school on creating digital stories.
Development Issues: 

Girls, Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Key Points: 

According to Intel [PDF], 23% fewer women than men are online in the developing world, and 40% of women who don't use the internet blame lack of familiarity or comfort with technology.

According to IREX, economic development and women's empowerment are closely related goals. Eurasian countries seeking to maximise their economic potential have a distinct interest in making the most use of all their human capital, male and female. By promoting greater female representation in the professional field of IT and in the realm of public debate, TAG aims to support the economic and political development of Eurasia at the individual and community levels.

By 2015, IREX had trained over 1,300 girls in digital and leadership skills. Participants then implemented 400+ service projects that reached more than 10,000 people. When TAG alumnae were surveyed 5-10 years after participating, 80% of respondents reported that the digital skills they learned through TAG made them more competitive in the job market, 76% maintain the support network they gained, and 83% were still active in their communities.

Partner Text: 

Support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Peace Corps, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the US Department of State.

Source: 

Tech Age Girls Myanmar [PDF], Tech Age Girls Curriculum Overview [PDF] - from Beyond Access - and TAG page on the IREX website; "Who are the Tech Age Girls?, by Myahriban Karyagdyyeva and Ari Katz, IREX, on the UNESCO website, March 18 2014; and TAG on Facebook - all accessed on June 7 2017.

Post new comment

Samata

No votes yet

"Many factors push girls to drop out of school: can a multi-layered programme overcome these barriers?"

Launched by Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) in July 2012, the 5-year Samata programme in northern Karnataka, south India, seeks to keep adolescent girls in school, delay their marriage, and reduce entry into sex work by working with girls, their families, boys, teachers, and local government authorities. Evidence has shown that completing high school protects girls against HIV and other health risks, as well as improving their economic and social options in life. Samata intervenes with scheduled caste and scheduled tribe (SC/ST) girls aged between 12 to 16 years of age. Specifically, Samata works to reach 3,600 adolescent girls in 119 villages and in 69 high schools in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts, to:

Communication Strategies: 

Samata is structured in 3 phases: i) planning and piloting, ii) implementation, and iii) evaluation, consolidation, and dissemination. Samata's design is informed by i) assessments and trials conducted during Samata's planning phase, ii) published findings of studies on girls' education, iii) features of successful projects with adolescent girls, and iv) recommendations of experts in this field. Samata's Theory of Change assumes that adolescent girls who complete 10th standard are more likely to marry later, delay or avoid sex work, and have sexual debut later, thus reducing their vulnerability to HIV and improving their quality of life. Because of the need for better understanding of causality within the relationship between girls' education and age at marriage, organisers have designed Samata so that the monitoring and evaluation of its process, outcomes, and impact will contribute to evidence that strengthens such understanding.

On the basis of the multiple barriers that girls encounter and strategies recommended in the literature, Samata organisers have worked to create an enabling environment by intervening with all relevant stakeholders - girls, boys, parents, school teachers and principals, School Development and Monitoring Committees (SDMCs), local governing officials, education department officials, and male students - to increase both demand for and supply of secondary education for girls.

At the heart of the Samata intervention is the development of a cadre of adolescent girl leaders who work to sustain changes in favour of girls' education and gender equality in their villages. The programme mentors girls to become confident and vocal young feminists, active in their communities and schools. Samata aims to equip them with the knowledge and skills to effectively negotiate a space that is hostile to women.

More specifically, interventions with schools, teachers, and SDMCs include:

  • Skills and capacities of school staff and SDMCs built to conduct gender analysis and prepare school development plans towards girls' entry and retention in school - activities include: developing a 2-day curriculum for training the teachers and SDMCs; developing a team of master trainers from the education departments and regular training institutes; conducting gender training for teachers and SDMCs members using the curriculum; training SDMCs; and developing an action plan by end of the training to initiate activities in school to promote gender equity.
  • Simple tools and job aids are available with school staff and SDMC for tracking entry and retention - activities include: assessing existing methods of tracking students; developing tools for teachers to annually map and track vulnerable girls by using classes 7 and 8 enrolment lists from the area's upper primary schools, and piloting the tools in selected schools; advocating with schools to introduce the tool; training teachers to use the tool for profiling and tracking; and monitoring and supporting teachers to conduct gap analysis and use the tool to improve entry and retention.
  • Schools have policies that ensure a safe environment and participation of girls in school - activities include: assisting schools to institute safety measures for girls supported by a buddy system that includes peers and teachers to enable reporting and redressal of harassment of girls; and initiating girl-friendly services in the schools like separate toilets for girls, special events for promoting girls' leadership, etc.
  • Schools have leadership and career counselling programmes for adolescent girls - activities include: organising career counselling sessions through schools on career options; supporting schools in establishing links for schemes meant for adolescent girls; collaborating with the school to organise intra- and inter-school sports and cultural meetings for adolescent girls that build their confidence and leadership skills, and challenge gender norms; and organising special leadership and personality development programmes for the adolescent girls.

With regard to SC/ST girls (Classes 7 to 10) from intervention schools and villages, Samata works to strengthen the self-esteem and awareness of the girls to enable them to make informed choices and empower them to collectively confront and overcome the issues they face. "Champions of change" are being identified and assisted to form support groups for adolescents living in their village's vicinity. These groups will be strengthened to engage with families and others in the community and negotiate necessary changes in attitudes, behaviours, actions, and services at the community and district level. Group sessions with adolescent girls use Parivartan modules (a curriculum to shift gender norms among adolescent girls and boys) to recognise and examine manifestations of gender disparity and gender-based violence and to empower girls to call for equality and their rights, especially their rights to education and freedom from discrimination. Safe spaces are arranged for the girls to meet regularly and to nurture their networks. Through these group sessions, mentoring focuses on issues of violence against girls, sexual and reproductive health education, and life skills such as interpersonal negotiation and leadership.

Intervention at the family level intends to help families to understand the importance of educating girls and gender equity, as well as the consequences of early marriage and child bearing, and to assist families to find ways to afford to educate their daughters. This is being done by identifying the most marginalised and vulnerable families, counselling them on the key issues they are facing, helping them solve their problems, initiating dialogue about secondary education for daughters, and linking them to livelihood schemes. These activities are carried out by the outreach workers through meeting with the parents, village- and community-level meetings, samvaada programmes (street plays and folk shows on the issues of early marriage, school dropouts, etc., followed by discussions and conversations with the community members), village-level campaigns, and so on. Intervention with families also promotes their active participation in SDMCs.

The project is also working with boys aged 13-18 years from the SC/ST community to transform their attitudes towards gender, emphasising the right of adolescent girls to a life free of violence and abuse. Popular sports are being used as a channel for communicating positive messages on masculinity and respect for women. Samata uses Parivartan modules (referenced above) to engage local athletic coaches to deliver violence prevention scripts and tools to adolescent boys from the same locality to alter norms that foster aggression and violence, to promote bystander intervention, and to reduce physical and sexual assault. Parivartan uses athletic coaches because they are often seen by boys as role models.

Interventions with the community include:

  • Community awareness is raised about consequences of girls discontinuing education - activities include: selecting folk media troupes to develop and perform folk shows in the community to initiate dialogue about secondary education for adolescent girls, the hazards of early marriage, teenage pregnancy, early child-bearing, and early sexual debut; and conducting regular meetings with existing groups in the villages.
  • Community members take action against girl child drop-out from schools - activities include: meeting regularly with Dalit Sangarsh Samithi (DSS), youth groups, and self-help groups (SHGs) to share evidence, progress, and outcomes of the intervention; meeting regularly with Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) to help them understand their role in girl child education; developing vigilance committees to increase entry and retention; supporting campaigns related to transition and retention started by the local community/SDMC/schools; and advocating with PRIs on the importance of the issue and the need for monitoring the activities undertaken by schools.

Samata also involves intervention with State-, District-, and Block-Level Department of Education officials and the media. Interventions with Education Department officials are of two types: i) interventions that form and strengthen collaboration between the officials, Samata, and civil society, and ii) advocacy. The ultimate purpose of collaboration with the Education Department is to prepare the government to continue Samata's activities after KPHT exits. The existence of many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations (CBOs) that work for the cause of adolescent girls and vulnerable women in Samata's project area will strengthen Samata's implementation is expected to provide allies for advocacy. Another important ally in advocacy is adolescent girls themselves. One key strategy is to hold events that enable girls to voice their needs, concerns, and aspirations directly to key stakeholders. Broadly, the advocacy process includes many activities, including forming contacts at different levels, collaboration activities, joint meetings and conferences, facilitating exposure to programmes, sharing best practices, research and assessment findings, networking with organisations at different levels, media sensitisation, and direct engagement with policymakers to translate Samata's learnings into guidelines and schemes.

The process of Samata's implementation will be monitored. The project uses a mixed method community randomised trial design, and has three main components: i) a quantitative assessment involving two sequential cohort studies, one initiated in year one and another initiated in year two, of a sample of SC/ST girls and their families at baseline and following the intervention; ii) a qualitative assessment documenting the process of implementation and change using qualitative methods with SC/ST girls, families, teachers, and boys; and iii) a robust monitoring system to monitor the intervention activities at school and community levels.

Full details about the project are available in the resources available Samata page on the STRIVE website, such as the Project Implementation Design [PDF] document (see especially chapter 6 on the monitoring and evaluation plan).

Development Issues: 

Education, Girls, HIV/AIDS, Gender Equality

Key Points: 

India's commitment to realising universal education has been demonstrated through its Right to Education Act and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme. Yet serious challenges remain in terms of retention, quality, and equity in education. Aggregate indications of progress conceal disparities in education quality and attainment that are compounded by gender, geography, caste, and class. Nowhere is this more evident than in the case of adolescent girls belonging to SC/ST families in Bijapur and Bagalkot (where, in 2006, 89% of households from SC/ST in Bagalkot and 42% of all households in Bijapur lived below the poverty line). The likelihood of SC/ST girls in these districts completing secondary school is sharply diminished by poverty, stigma, and traditions of early marriage or dedication as devadasi before they turn 18. In 2006, among SC/ST girls, 53% in Bagalkot and 38% in Bijapur married before the age of 18. Over 70% of female sex workers from northern Karnataka are from SC/ST communities and enter into sex work before 18 years of age. By terminating girls' education and initiating them to high-volume sex work at an early age in districts where rates of HIV prevalence are among the highest in the nation, the devadasi tradition increases girls' HIV vulnerability.

According to organisers, a girl who drops out of school can: be more vulnerable to HIV infection and other health problems; have a larger, less healthy family; earn less than better educated girls; lack voice and agency; and be disengaged from larger community issues. Forcing girls to drop out or marrying them early is seen by the organisers as violence and right violation against adolescent girls. A girl who completes high school: is three times less likely to contract HIV; will have fewer, healthier and better educated children; earns better and reinvests 90% of what she earns into her family; is better prepared for decision making; is more involved in her community; and increases the economic growth of the country.

On the basis of a series of intensive assessments of the situation of adolescent girls and their families in Bagalkot and Bijapur, KHPT felt that it will be very constructive to intervene with girls to strengthen their confidence; improve their skills in communication, leadership, and problem solving; improve their academic performance; strengthen their solidarity; create support structures at family and community levels; and link them to schemes related to education, health, and skill development. Creating safe spaces for girls, working with parents and adolescent boys, and involving schools and mobilising community support have been found to positively impact on girls' education.

Partner Text: 

The Samata programme is implemented by the Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) in partnership with the Government of Karnataka, ViiV Healthcare, and the University of Manitoba. The evaluation component of Samata is implemented by the KHPT and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), with funding from UKAid from the Department for International Development (DFID) through the STRIVE research programme consortium.

See video
Source: 

STRIVE website, Samata page on the STRIVE website, Samata intervention briefs, Samata poster [PDF] - all accessed on June 1 2017; and email from Parinita Bhattacharjee to The Communication Initiative on June 2 2017.

Post new comment

PASSA Youth: Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter and Settlements Awareness [Manual]

No votes yet
Author: 
Patricia Díaz
Publication Date
Publication Date: 
March 8, 2017

This manual is for use by National Societies of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) wishing to use PASSA Youth in their programmes. As detailed at Related Summaries, below, the Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness (PASSA) is a methodology, implemented in partnership with Habitat for Humanity International, that aims to provide young people aged between 13 and 17 living in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities with tools to understand the risks to their houses and neighbourhoods, taking steps to make these safer and enabling them to improve overall living conditions both prior and after disasters and crisis. The manual includes different parts that should be used as appropriate by senior National Society or allies staff, shelter and youth programme managers, branch staff, and volunteers.

Number of Pages: 

210 (for the main manual)

Source: 

ReliefWeb, May 19 2017, and IFRC website, May 24 2017. Image credit: Agostino Pacciani, Jan Marvin A. Goh/PRC, Costa Rican Red Cross, and Jaime Mok

Post new comment

Most Recent from the Network

Syndicate content
Syndicate content

UNAIDS on Twitter

UNAIDS on Facebook

HIV/AIDS on Twitter

Recent Comments from the Network