Most Recent Knowledge Shared from the Network

November 25, 2015

On the Fast-Track to End AIDS: UNAIDS 2016 - 2021 Strategy

This document outlines the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2016-2021 strategy to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The strategy maps out the UNAIDS Fast-...

November 25, 2015

On the Fast-Track to End AIDS: UNAIDS 2016 - 2021 Strategy

This document outlines the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2016-2021 strategy to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The strategy maps out the UNAIDS Fast-...

Anonymous
November 23, 2015

Statement by UN Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka

Author: Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, November 20 2015, on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, 25 November: Across the world, violence against women and...

October 29, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Final Report

"The qualitative data from listening clubs showed that youth believe good communication with their parents has a big influence on their behaviours and can help them to make healthier and more...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

July 27, 2015

A Short Technical Update on Self-Testing for HIV

"HIV self‑testing may provide people with an additional pathway to HIV prevention, care and treatment." This document is designed "to synthesize experiences, research and policies on HIV self‑...

April 30, 2015

Elembo Radio Drama

Broadcasting from February 2015 to October 2016, Elembo is a 156-part serial radio drama that uses entertainment education to address issues such as adolescent reproductive health, child and maternal...

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15 to 19 years

The 15 to 19 years category age group category required by UNICEF Adolescent Health

Women and girl's rights in Sierra Leone: Let Us Know!

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Author: Olabisi Olu Garrick, February 23 2015 - Despite my fourteen years as a journalist, I didn’t always want to work in the media. I actually wanted to be a lawyer.

The ability to hold people to account and help people understand their legal rights always appealed to me. Little did I know that a chance meeting with a woman one sunny afternoon would change my life.

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PASSA Youth: Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter and Settlements Awareness [Manual]

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Author: 
Patricia Díaz
Publication Date
Publication Date: 
March 8, 2017

This manual is for use by National Societies of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) wishing to use PASSA Youth in their programmes. As detailed at Related Summaries, below, the Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness (PASSA) is a methodology, implemented in partnership with Habitat for Humanity International, that aims to provide young people aged between 13 and 17 living in disadvantaged and vulnerable communities with tools to understand the risks to their houses and neighbourhoods, taking steps to make these safer and enabling them to improve overall living conditions both prior and after disasters and crisis. The manual includes different parts that should be used as appropriate by senior National Society or allies staff, shelter and youth programme managers, branch staff, and volunteers.

Number of Pages: 

210 (for the main manual)

Source: 

ReliefWeb, May 19 2017, and IFRC website, May 24 2017. Image credit: Agostino Pacciani, Jan Marvin A. Goh/PRC, Costa Rican Red Cross, and Jaime Mok

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Participatory Approach for Safe Shelter Awareness (PASSA) Youth

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"If PASSA Youth is systematically and correctly used it will bring about behavioural change. For this to happen youth need to take full ownership of the process which will happen if they are treated as autonomous beings and not as children depending on other people's decisions."

Communication Strategies: 

Ela Serdaroglu, IFRC Shelter Lead, says: "Innovation is at the heart of PASSA Youth, including the use of digital and new media resources to connect, share and engage. In addition, the youth-focused version shows the advantages of linking up to makers' communities, and the viability of digital technologies to increase capacities and resilience, when disasters and crisis strike. The purpose is to develop capacity of youth (leaders, volunteers, members of affected communities) to make positive changes in their communities, by raising their awareness on specific habitat related risks they are exposed to and to articulate their priorities and choices to adult counterparts." PASSA uses participatory methods, which IFRC finds have proven effective in work with communities, among other things because:

  • They enable anybody to contribute to the analysis and planning as an equal, whatever their age, gender, social class, or level of education.
  • They build self-esteem, respect for other members of the group, and a sense of individual and collective responsibility for decisions.
  • They develop understanding and respect for local capacities and knowledge while helping to spread innovations generated by the community, making their adoption of higher value and appropriation.
  • They are fun and rewarding for the facilitators and, in the case of Red Cross Red Crescent volunteers, they foster a new and positive relationship with community members.

IFRC explains that the surfacing of digital tools that make communication and collaboration easier, has enriched participatory methodologies and expanded their focus from communities and local issues to global affairs. PASSA Youth activities use closely connected multiple media so young people move from one to another with ease. Starting from orality and collective memory, followed by creative cartography and community journalism, youth use a variety of tools for collecting data about their community in multimedia formats. Presenting group findings is encouraged using transmedia storytelling. Activities are boosted with the addition of an interactive component to PASSA Youth, crystallised in the Digital Track. For example, the historical profile is enhanced with the construction of a digital time-line and community maps with QR (Quick Response) codes.

In practice, PASSA Youth is a process facilitated by trained volunteers who guide a community group (called PASSA Group) of 15-30 youth leaders through 8 participatory activities that enable the youth to do the following progressively:

  • Develop their awareness of shelter safety issues in their community.
  • Identify hazards and vulnerabilities that create risk related to shelter.
  • Analyse causes of shelter vulnerability.
  • Prioritise potential strategies to improve shelter safety.
  • Plan to put those shelter safety strategies into place.
  • Implement improvements based on local capacities.
  • Monitor progress.

Each activity takes about 4 hours. The 8 activities are spread over the course of 2 to 8 weeks. (The manual available at Related Summaries, below, details the process.) Designed to create inspiring and powerful initiatives driven by youth, PASSA Youth can be used as a tool to start immediate action - using flash mob style events and attracting attention on neighbourhood safety conditions - as well as to progressively enable long-lasting change in communities. PASSA Youth can also be regarded as a tool to progress from the shelter relief phase to more long-lasting reconstruction solutions. In both pre-disaster and post-disaster settings, the tool will allow youth to express concerns and demands, and steer their plans into realistic and sustainable outcomes. The artist plays a fundamental role in this process - demonstrating techniques and promoting that youth express themselves and communicate lessons learned to the community, among other reasons, to gather support to complete the enhancements.

PASSA Youth is designed to support programmes to improve shelter safety and thereby reduce disaster risk. It is therefore very closely related to Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) and may often be built on a VCA where shelter is identified as a source of risk. It is important to acknowledge and build upon community-based programmes that have been previously developed in the country concerned, in particular those involving the youth. PASSA Youth can be implemented at different stages within the disaster management cycle:

  • Preparedness and mitigation: PASSA Youth is used as a tool for shelter risk reduction once VCA has identified risks related to habitat and the built environment.
  • From relief to recovery: As the emergency shelter phase is over, PASSA Youth provides the framework for creating long-lasting shelter solutions by integrating risk knowledge at community level (site mitigation measures, disaster-resistant techniques, etc).
  • Recovery phase: At the end of the recovery phase, PASSA Youth serves to address shelter and settlement issues not covered by the programme and builds on the capacities acquired. PASSA Youth enables the community to approach other actors and to lobby local governments on matters of common interest.

To that end, shelter and youth programmes of the National Society and allies such as Habitat for Humanity carry out activities such as the following: train, supervise, and support volunteers; supply the materials, meeting space, and equipment needed; develop the PASSA Youth illustrations pack with a local artist before and during the activities; discuss and give feedback on reports about PASSA Youth implementation and results; inform local stakeholders of the PASSA Youth process; coordinate with local authorities and other local stakeholders to back the needs of the community; get involved as required if problems arise beyond the volunteers' capacity to manage; and provide essential technical support on shelter and settlements safety.

IFRC says that, to institutionalise PASSA Youth within Red Cross Red Crescent and allies such as Habitat for Humanity, disaster-preparedness tools such as contingency plans at local and municipal levels should incorporate PASSA Youth as standard practice and use it as the tool for shelter safety and community-driven improvement. PASSA Youth should be considered as a tool that strengthens both a "software component" - namely, knowledge and skills development within the community - and a "hardware component" - leading to the physical improvement of housing and infrastructure.

Development Issues: 

Youth, Disaster Risk Reduction

Key Points: 

PASSA is a participatory method of disaster risk reduction (DRR) related to shelter and settlements safety. It is a variation of Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST), which has been used by many Red Cross Red Crescent National Societies in water and sanitation programmes since the late 1990s. PHAST in turn is based on a participatory approach called SARAR which stands for Self-esteem, Associative strengths, Resourcefulness, Action-planning and Responsibility. PASSA Youth is a variation of the original PASSA.

Partner Text: 

IFRC, Habitat for Humanity

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Source: 

IFRC website; PASSA Youth flyer [PDF], February 2017; PASSA Youth manual [PDF], March 2017; ReliefWeb; and the PASSA Youth Digital Track - all accessed on May 19 2017. Image credit: Agostino Pacciani, Jan Marvin A. Goh/PRC, Costa Rican Red Cross, and Jaime Mok

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Conducting Research with Adolescents from Low- and Middle- Income Countries

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Publication Date
Publication Date: 

March - April 2017

"90 per cent of adolescents live in low- and middle-income countries. Despite an increasing focus on their well-being, comprehensive data collection systems and research for effective interventions are lacking."

Number of Pages: 

Between 13 and 18

Source: 

Emails from Nikola Balvin to The Communication Initiative on May 4 2017 and May 5 2017. Image credit: UNICEF

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Social media tips from Doctor Who help launch new Palestinian youth drama

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Author: Social Media Manager, BBC, Jose Vila, originally posted on March 30 2017 - Jose Vila, social media manager for Doctor Who on advising BBC Media Action's new TV drama in the Palestinian Territories.

Life's full of surprises. I was sitting at my desk in London on a grey afternoon when I received an unexpected email. BBC Media Action required my experience managing social media for Doctor Who to help them launch a new youth TV drama in the Palestinian Territories. I was eager to help.

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Sierra Leone: standing up to crime through radio

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Author: BBC Media Action's Eastina Massaquoi, originally posted on March 24 2017 -  How a Comic Relief funded radio programme is helping inspire young people through discussion and positive role models in Sierra Leone.

I was walking along the beach by the golf club in Freetown when it happened. A man jumped down from a tree, grabbed me, covered my eyes and tried to rip away my bag. I fought back but he slapped my face and punched me. Blood was everywhere, pouring down my face and from my mouth.

Another man ran to my rescue and scared him away. I escaped into the sea, shaken, scared and hurting. I tried to report my attack to the police but they said I had to buy a pen and paper to make the statement. I couldn’t afford these things, so I just left the station. They never caught him.

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Inspirational women and girls in our dramas

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Author: BBC Media Action's Geraldine Sweetland, originally posted on March 8 2017 - To celebrate International Women’s Day 2017 (whose theme is #beboldforchange) – we take a closer look at some of the inspirational female characters (past and present) from our TV and radio drama around the world.

Drama is just one of the ways in which BBC Media Action works to empower women and girls, help them adopt healthier (sometimes life-saving) practices and opens up discussion on important issues around health, resilience and gender equality.

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The Girl Child and Sustainable Development Goals

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Author: Ranjani.K.Murthy, April 18 2017 - This blog examines what the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), targets and indicators have to offer to further welfare and rights of girl child, and where there are gaps.

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'Whenever I saw children in school I used to cry...now I'm in school, I'm happy.'

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Author: BBC Media Action's Kenyi Betuel, originally posted on March 6 2017 - Stella wanted to go to school but her father thought it would ‘spoil’ her chances of marriage. Kenyi Betuel – editor of a girls’ education radio show - explores some of the cultural barriers facing girls who want an education in South Sudan.

“My father only sent one of my elder sisters to school. He told me that the rest of us had to remain in the village,” says Stella, sadly wringing her hands.

“Whenever I saw children in school I used to cry,” she adds. “But now I’m in school, I’m happy.”

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Sisters With a Voice Project

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The Sisters with a Voice (SWV) programme started in 2009 and has reached over 24,000 female sex workers in 36 sites in Zimbabwe with clinical services, health education, and community empowerment and mobilisation activities. Both fixed and mobile clinics provide primary health care, contraception, management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV testing and referral for antiretrovial therapy (ART). Sisters’ counsellors, community outreach workers, and peer educators supplement clinical services with participatory activities aimed at building social cohesion, support networks, and self-efficacy among sex workers. The Centre for Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Research (CeSHHAR) implements SWV on behalf of the National AIDS Council in partnership with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Zimbabwe.

Communication Strategies: 

The overall aims of SWV are to: 1) reduce HIV acquisition among sex workers; 2) reduce HIV transmission to their clients; and 3) improve sex workers’ rights, through providing clinical services supported by peer educators and community outreach.

In terms of behaviour change and communication-related activities, the project is undertaking the following:

Peer education and empowerment
Research shows that building strong networks of sex workers can reduce their risk of HIV and STIs as well as gender-based violence. Sex workers with strong networks are more likely to use condoms with clients and regular partners. For this reason, the SVW supports sex workers to work together by providing a safe space for them to gather and identify what issues are important to them. Community empowerment meetings are held at all sites and are run by ‘Sisters’ who have been trained as peer educators. The sessions cover issues that concern sex workers (self-worth, behaviour change, contraception, HIV, and cervical cancer), issues relating to clients and partners (communication, assertiveness, serodiscordance, sexual networks, and multiple concurrent partnering), and issues relating to the ‘sisterhood’ (advocacy, stigma, rights, and support). Through these regular meetings, sex workers develop power as a community and act to address some of the factors that increase their HIV risk. Empowerment also increases sex worker participation and leadership in the programme.

Advocacy
The programme undertakes advocacy in order to improve respect, protection, and upholding of sex worker rights to promote their universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. The project implements workshops to sensitise district-level health officials, the media, and the police on the rights of sex workers.

Working with adolescent and young women sex workers
The project is making an effort to include adolescent and young women who sell sex. Formative research undertaken by the project points to the fact that adolescents who sell sex do not have the skills or experience to negotiate safe relationships or manage difficult clients; unequal power relations between themselves and often significantly older adult men further exacerbate their risk. SWV is therefore working closely with the Ministry of Health and Social Services, and SWV recruits to train and supports young (aged 15-24) peer educators, around half of whom will also be trained as lay child protection officers (case care workers). The programme for young sex workers uses age-specific materials that were developed and piloted by CeSHHAR. The programme activities encourage mobilisation around HIV prevention and treatment and the health and well-being of young women who sell sex so that they are able to engage in risk reduction and the use of health services. Click here [PDF] to download the “Working with Young Women Who Sell Sex: Facilitator’s Activity Pack”, which was developed for working with young sex workers.

Social Media
The programme has also run social media workshops with sex workers in order to provide information on the potential of social media to improve communication and networking between sex workers. For example, social media has the potential to provide information about services, can provide a means for sex workers to communicate with the world and tell their story, and can be used for advocacy and stigma reduction.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

Female sex workers are at very high risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. In Africa, female sex workers have 11 times higher odds of having HIV than women in the general population. Modelling suggests that across Africa, 40% of new infections within the population are likely attributable to unsafe sex work, suggesting that 40% of new infection could be prevented if sex workers could be supported to be fully engaged with prevention and care services. However, female sex workers are marginalised, sex work is illegal in many countries, and female sex workers are often stigmatised by communities and health workers. Typically, female sex workers are also highly mobile. In Zimbabwe, where prevalence among sex workers is 58%, analysis of programme data from 2009-2014 suggests that annual HIV incidence is over 10% (ten times that in the adult female population), that only 67% are aware of their HIV status, and that less than half of all female sex workers living with HIV have a viral load.

Partner Text: 

The Centre for Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Research (CeSHHAR) and UNFPA Zimbabwe.

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