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ANDI – Comunicación y Derechos

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Esta organización tiene por misión contribuir a una cultura de promoción de los derechos de la infancia y la juventud, los derechos humanos, la inclusión social, la democracia participativa y el desarrollo sustentable a partir de acciones en los ámbitos del periodismo, del entretenimiento y de la publicidad en cualquiera de las plataformas mediáticas.

Communication Strategies: 

El modelo de Medios de Comunicación para el Desarrollo implementado por la organización se basa en tres grandes ejes de actuación:

  • Monitoreo y Análisis: La inversión que ANDI realiza en el desarrollo de metodologías de observación cuantitativa y cualitativa para el monitoreo de contenidos periodísticos parte del principio de que es esencial retroalimentar a los profesionales y a las empresas de comunicación con una lectura crítica, rigurosa, estructurada y constructiva sobre su comportamiento editorial. Este diagnóstico permite la corrección de fallas en el proceso de investigación así como de vicios de formación o de práctica profesional. Al mismo tiempo es un medio eficaz para alertar a los periodistas de la posibilidad de acceder a nuevos conocimientos y experimentar diferentes abordajes de los temas en cuestión.
  • Movilización. ANDI interacciona diariamente con las redacciones de los medios y las fuentes de información para la definición de la agenda noticiosa y para la divulgación de noticias de referencia. Actúa como provocadora de nuevas agendas, así como mediante la atención (help desk) a periodistas y organizaciones sociales. Estas actividades están basadas en el principio de que la búsqueda de la calidad de la información pública es corresponsabilidad de reporteros, editores y fuentes de información; y que el buen periodismo reside en la diversidad de perspectivas y opiniones.
  • Cualificación. La organización busca la promoción de seminarios y espacios de capacitación donde se debatan los aspectos más importantes sobre derechos, comunicación e infancia.
Development Issues: 

Comunicación, infancia, derechos, abogacía.

Key Points: 

ANDI centra todas sus acciones en la construcción de conocimiento y la incidencia transformadora en los campos de la comunicación y del periodismo, a partir del marco de los derechos, de la democracia y del desarrollo sustentable. Estos aspectos tienen como telón de fondo el fortalecimiento de algunos de los papeles esenciales de los medios de comunicación en los regímenes democráticos:

  • Ofrecer información confiable y contextualizada para que los ciudadanos y las ciudadanas puedan participar activamente en la vida política, fiscalizando y exigiendo la promoción de sus derechos.
  • Ser pluralista en la construcción de una agenda de debates, contribuyendo a que temas relevantes para el desarrollo humano alimenten la esfera pública de discusiones a partir del posicionamiento (y la legitimación) de un mayor número de actores.
  • Ejercer control sobre el Estado y las políticas públicas colaborando para que los gobernantes (y también el sector privado y la sociedad civil) se conduzcan más responsablemente en los procesos de formulación, ejecución y evaluación de acciones y programas. 

Contacto: 

Antonio Augusto Silva

Diretor Executivo, ANDI — Comunicação e Direitos

Email: a.augusto@andi.org.br

Tel: (61) 2102 6508


Miriam Pragita
Diretora Administrativa Financeira, ANDI — Comunicação e Direitos

Tel: (+55 61) 2102.6505

Página web.

Source: 

Tomado de la página web de ANDI - Comunicación y Derechos.

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Réseaux Television Series

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Launched in March 2014, Réseaux ("Networks" in English) was a six-episode Ivorian television drama series designed to help promote safer sexual behaviours among sexually active young girls, and adult married men and women. The story follows the lives and relationships of three middle class family fathers in their 40s, and seeks to show how sexual networks develop and how they increase the risk of HIV infection for everyone in that network.

Communication Strategies: 

A survey of HIV prevalence in Ivory Coast conducted in 2011-2012 by the Institut National de Statistiques under the direction of the Ministry of Health and AIDS found the highest prevalence to be among men and women ages 40-49. The formative research conducted for the series revealed that this cohort of men tend to think they are not at risk for infection - if they think about HIV at all. At the same time, many young women, enter into relationships with older men to seek economic benefits.

For this reason, the series firstly sought to raise awareness and discussion about the fact that HIV affects not only young people, but also adults. The primary target audience was therefore adult men and women aged 35-50, living in urban settings with at least a secondary education level, average or high incomes, and living as a couple. The secondary target audience was men and women aged 20-25, who live in urban settings, have a secondary education level, low incomes, and who are single.

The specific goals of the series were to:

  • Encourage sexually active young girls and married adults to reflect on their sexual behaviours.
  • Increase HIV risk perception in sexually active young girls and married adults.
  • Encourage reflection on couple relationships and on communication around sexuality, HIV, and condoms.
  • Help sexually active young girls and married adults to overcome their fear of HIV testing.
  • Encourage reflection on the current values of Ivorian society, including challenging values that foster multiple partnerships and lack of condom use.
  • Provide role models, who adopt healthy sexual behaviours and know their HIV status, with whom target audiences can identify with.

The Storyline
Réseaux takes place in Abidjan and follows three families in the well-off residential suburb, Cocody. There is Jean-Yves, an executive in a local company and in his mid-40s, who is torn between his wife, Sara, and his young mistress, Nina, and who also occasionally engages in relations with his coworker, Anita. Along with his two best friends from university, François and Zadi, Jean-Yves is caught in a complex sexual network of current and past relationships that intersect and put him at risk of becoming infected with HIV. His friend François, a Tax Office executive, is also caught in a love dilemma between his present partner and Bintou, an old flame from university days. On the other hand, Zadi, a university professor, is a "retired" seducer and now a devoted husband to his wife, Jacqueline, and his children. He often acts as a voice of reason for his old accomplices.

Furthering the discussion through complementary media
A radio talk show based on the drama series was also aired from March 2014. It was broadcast after each television broadcast on Radio Jam in Abidjan, Agnia FM in Abengourou, Média+ CI in Bouaké, Junior FM in Man, Yackoi FM in San Pedro, and Royal FM in Yamoussoukro. In the show, a doctor who specialises in HIV/AIDS and a psychologist who specialises in relationship counseling fielded calls from listeners during the radio show. Themes of the radio programmes included: Couple communication, multiple sexual partnerships and its consequences, condom use, HIV testing, ARV treatment, and living positively with HIV.


Discussion about the show and the issues raised were also being promoted through a Réseaux website and Facebook page. Messages were also being reinforced through posters, t-shirts, and bus stop advertising.

For more information about the show and to view episodes, go to the Réseaux website.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

Ivory Coast remains the country most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic in West Africa. According to the Ivory Coast Demographic and Health and Multiple Indicator Survey (EDS-MICS 2011-2012), while the national HIV prevalence is 3.4%, older men have the highest prevalence rates with 40-44 year-old rates at 7.7% and 45-49 year-old rates at 7.9%. As for women, their HIV prevalence rate increases with age, 3.6% among the 20-24 year-old, 5.6% among the 25-29 year-old, 6.8% among the 30-34 year-old, 7.3% among the 40-44 year-old, and 7.7% among women aged 45-49.

Formative research for the series revealed that in urban settings, at least for the cities of the study, economic needs, search for sexual pleasure and new experiences leads to intergenerational sexual relations. Thus, it is common practice for young girls to engage in sexual relationships with adult men with the aim of getting "rewards" (money to meet livelihood needs, clothes, mobile phones). Men who engage in this kind of relationship with young girls under 25 are generally 40 and over, married and have a comfortable financial situation. Their motivations are the search of new sexual experiences, the need to break with the monotony of married life, and because it makes them feel healthy.

According to JHUCCP, these relationships create an imbalance of power and leave young girls at risk of HIV/AIDS, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, as they are very often unable to impose condom use in that relationship, due in part to their financial dependence on those adult men. As a result of these high-risk sexual behaviours, the men's wives may then be infected with HIV.

Partner Text: 

Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (JHUCCP)’s Active Prevention and Transformative Communication (PACT) programme; Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3); Spot Line; and United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

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Source: 

Email received from Patricia Dailly Ajavon from JHUCCP, Ivory Coast and JHUCCP website on August 11 2014.

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My Rights, My Voice (MRMV)

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This programme aims to engage marginalised children and youth in their rights to health and education services in 8 countries: Afghanistan, Georgia, Mali, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Viet Nam. Activities in each country are tailored to the specific contexts and conditions children and young people experience, but all come together in a wider global programme that is designed to inspire learning, innovation, and sharing of experience. Working with children and young people and those who influence their lives, MRMV is an effort on the part of Oxfam to achieve changes in policies, practices, and beliefs so as to ensure that health and education needs are met.

Communication Strategies: 

Sample activities in each of the 8 countries:

  • Afghanistan activity example: Youth representatives (at least 35% of whom are women) are receiving media and communications training so they can campaign for their health and education rights. The project helps them develop campaign materials, including radio slots and booklets on rights, legal frameworks, and support bodies - all emphasising the particular challenges facing girls and young women. Young people are using these to lobby decision-makers, generate media coverage, and underpin events such as a nationwide letter-writing campaign for schoolgirls to voice their needs to the national government.
  • Georgia overview: "Working with children and young people, parents, doctors and Georgia's Public Defender's Office (the country’s health ombudsman), My Rights, My Voice is promoting child and youth health-rights among IDPs [internally displaced persons] in the two post-conflict regions of Samegrelo and Shida Khartli (each with a quarter of its population aged from 0-16). Together with our local partners..., we are using the experiences and views of young people from these two regions to inform wider debates and national policy-making..."
  • The project in Mali teaches young people about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) rights and advocates for improved national education policies and their implementation. For example, Learning about Living (Info Ado Mali) is an e-learning programme about SRH rights, delivered via computers, radio, and mobile phone. Available online, on CD, and in hard copy (for remote areas), the programme is delivered by teachers in schools, as well as in training sessions for young people out of school. It is backed by a confidential free-to-user text messaging service, Youth Call (Weleli Ado Mali). Children and young people send questions about SRH rights and receive an answer from trained counsellors within 24 hours. A monthly prize of free airtime encourages adolescents to use the service.
  • In Nepal, 3 advocacy films around health rights were planned, filmed, and edited by 12 Nepali MRMV youth campaigners in February 2014: (i) Health For Life (about the need for health-post laboratories in Banke District); (ii) A Journey Towards Light (about the lack of solar power in health posts in Surkhet District; and (iii) Searching For Medicine (about the availability of essential medicines in Dailekh District). Click here to view a comic strip in PDF format which tells the story of the 2-week participatory video workshop during which the 12 youth campaigners learned the skills and planned, filmed, and edited these 3 advocacy films.
  • Example from Niger: "In schools and youth-led groups known as fadas, we are training young people aged 11-25 on their right to SRH and on concrete aspects such as the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies, early and forced marriages of girls, obstetric injuries and genital mutilation. They will also be trained in how to spread the word among their peers through child-to-child techniques. We will develop an existing 'school parliament' scheme to build pupils' experience in governance issues, participation and decision-making. The fadas will organise community discussions, drama and radio programmes on young people's rights to education and SRH, emphasising the needs and involvement of girls and young women and mothers. Dedicated phone-in discussions enable youth leaders to discuss issues with each other. Questions raised through these conversations will inform national advocacy to press the government to improve the school curriculum on SRH and gender equity."
  • Through a mass edutainment campaign, the project in Pakistan is working to change social attitudes to young people's SRH rights and to drive reform of the curriculum, aiming to reach out to young people with information and education through formal mechanisms.
  • Sample story from Tanzania: "We are helping create and strengthen student councils, providing mentoring and coaching before elections, both for candidates and their supporters. With a particular focus on girls, we are training students in leadership skills, on their right to education, and how to hold teachers and the authorities accountable for its delivery by accessing information and developing monitoring tools. Student champions from each council gather information on key issues, build joint policy positions and develop campaign materials such as letters and artwork to lobby decision-makers for educational improvements. The student body is becoming aware of its right to a quality education and how to hold schools and community leaders to account, while student leaders are learning to represent their peers effectively in community meetings and regional and national forums. In this way, we are also building leaders for the future with a good grounding in democracy and accountability."
  • In Viet Nam, one of the focal points is education: "We are building awareness among children - especially girls - of their right to education and their ability to communicate their needs. Through capacity-building events in schools and communities on gender equality and children's rights, we are raising awareness among children and parents of the challenges facing them, and particularly those facing girls. Children also learn life skills such as teamwork, communication, presentation, leadership and negotiation, so they can express their needs and claim their rights with teachers and the authorities. To make it fun, we hold summer camps and fairs where children can deliver their messages to teachers, education managers and policy-makers creatively through festivals, art, poetry, theatre, song, photography, mobile exhibitions, dialogue forums and social networking. We also run contests for children, parents and teachers to develop innovative ways of promoting children's rights in schools and communities. At inter-school workshops, they can share learning with each other and decision-makers at different level."

At times, MRMV participants from various countries come together. In December 2013, a Global Advocacy Workshop in Nairobi, Kenya, brought together 16 MRMV youth campaigners with Oxfam and partner staff to network, share, and strengthen their skills around advocating for child and youth rights to health and education services - as documented in this comic strip story [PDF]. The film that emerged from the session can be seen below or by clicking here.

 

More details and interactive functions are offered on the MRMV website.

Development Issues: 

Children, Youth, Education, Gender, Health, Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights

Partner Text: 

Funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).

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Wize up Campaign - Namibia

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Wize up is an ongoing youth campaign in Namibia that seeks to increase young people’s knowledge around sexual and reproductive health (SRH) as well as their access to services, thereby reducing early pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and increasing use of condoms as a dual protection for both HIV and pregnancy prevention. Led by Desert Soul Health and Development Communicatio and implemented with a range of partners, the campaign activities include a musical performance, production and distribution of booklets, and radio talk shows.

Communication Strategies: 

The specific objectives of the campaign are to:

  • increase knowledge and encourage correct and consistent condom use as a dual protection mechanism (HIV and pregnancy prevention) among youths;
  • encourage positive peer pressure while creating the ability to resist negative peer pressure on youth sexuality;
  • encourage delayed sexual debut among the youth while ensuring that they are informed by the time they engage in sexual activities;
  • increase parent-child communication around sexual health issues including teenage pregnancy and its consequences;
  • provide comprehensive knowledge on SRHR to youths and parents;
  • advocate for increased access to comprehensive and youth friendly SRHR services for youths in and out of school;
  • advocate for protection of young people from child abuse and age disparate sex; and
  • positively shift gender norms that make young women vulnerable to SRH problems.

The primary target audience are youths aged 15 – 24 years and the secondary target audience is parents. According to Desert Soul, parents are being targeted due to the overwhelming evidence regarding the need to strengthen the role of parents in adolescent challenges.

Following formative research into the attitudes and behaviours of youth in Namibia, Desert Soul held a message design workshop to develop messages that could be used across all campaign activities. The key messages are:

Messages to youth:
1. You have the right to SRH and this means:

  • sex has consequences and you should not have it if you are not ready to take the consequences;
  • you can decide when and with whom to have safe sex;
  • having a baby at an early age prevents you from having a fulfilling future;
  • you can decide to abstain from sex;
  • you can decide to use condoms correctly and consistently to prevent pregnancy and STIs including HIV;
  • having access to health facilities;
  • speaking to your parents and/or a trusted adult about sexual issues affecting you; and
  • avoiding age-disparate sexual relationships.

2. Young women have the right to equal involvement in SRH decision-making. Respect young women’s decisions.
3. Don’t let your friends make sexual decisions for you; be in control of your sexual life.

Messages to parents:
1. Youth look up to parents to provide them with the correct information about sex and sexuality. Talk to your children about sex including safe sex, issues of growing up (physical and emotional changes), and empower them to resist negative peer pressure.
2. Be good role models.
3. Discourage and protect young people from engaging in age-disparate sexual relationships which increase the risk of SRH problems.
4. It is the responsibility of both parents when a girl gets pregnant.

The Wize up campaign in Namibia has included the following activities:


Wize up radio programme
In 2011 and 2012, Desert Soul broadcast 2 series of radio talk shows on youth and sexual health-related topics (see Related Summary below for more information). The second season of 20 episodes contained a mini drama followed by a discussion. These were broadcast on Fresh FM over a period of 3 months. In 2014, the second series of radio programmes are being rebroadcast, but in order to reach a wider audience across Namibia, the rebroadcast is taking place over 4 community radio stations - Base FM in Windhoek in the Khomas Region, Live FM in Rehoboth in the Hardap Region, Kharas FM in Keetmanshoop in the Karas Region, and Ohangwena Community Radio in Eenhana in the Ohangwena Regions.

Wize up musical
The musical was a culmination of work done during 2013 with high schools and tertiary institutions with support from a PEPFAR Small Grant. It was hosted in April 2014 by the University of Namibia (UNAM) Drama Department and dealt with issues such as safer sexual practices, condom use, and faithfulness in a relationship. It was attended by approximately 200 people of different age groups, but mainly students from UNAM and youth groups.

Wize up youth booklet
A youth booklet on sexual and reproductive health is being developed and Desert Soul is planning to print 20,000 copies with funding from Sweden and Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) through the Soul City Institute and WHO. The aim of the booklet is to provide comprehensive knowledge on sexual and reproductive health.

Desert Soul also used theatre outreach to tackle the issue of teenage pregnancy in the Okavango region. Three scripts were developed to deal with three specific issues: a teenage girl falling pregnant, the type of support that girls need during pregnancy, and what to do to avoid a second pregnancy. The short dramas were performed by local actors in three high schools in June 2014 and performances were followed up with direct face-to-face discussions with learners to their feedback and input.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Youth

Key Points: 

Desert Soul developed the Wise up youth campaign based on research highlighting young people’s vulnerability to sexual and reproductive health risks. The study showed that Namibian youth understand the severity of the HIV epidemic, but still do not use condoms consistently. These findings align with national statistics that illustrate continued risky sexual behaviours among Namibian youth. For example, 64% of youth 15-19 years old have never used contraceptives, and consequently 13% of youth had a baby or were pregnant (DHS 2006).

Partner Text: 

Desert Soul, Sweden and Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad), President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the World Health Organisation (WHO)

Source: 

Email received from Mathew Haikali from Desert Soul on July 17 2014.

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Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Campaign for Mobile Populations in Zimbabwe

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Action Institute for Environment Health and Development Communication (Action IEHDC) in Zimbabwe embarked on a sexual and reproductive health and rights campaign focusing on mobile populations at two border posts - Beitbridge and Chirundu. The campaign messaging focused on addressing sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) issues to reduce HIV incidences among mobile populations, primarily long distance truck drivers, commercial sex workers, and young women.

Communication Strategies: 

Beitbridge and Chirundu were selected based on the heavy traffic of people leaving and entering the country through these ports of entry to South Africa and Zambia respectively. This results in an increased risk of exposure to unsafe sexual practices due to transactional sex and sex work. Through networking and collaboration with other implementing partners along the transport corridors, this project intended to raise awareness on SRHR, MCPs, and the risk of HIV infection.


Literature review and audience research findings informed the campaign's SRHR materials production process. These included SRHR posters, a brochure, and a z-folder entitled "Sex Workers are Human Beings Too"(See Related Summaries below). To enhance understanding, these materials were translated into the vernacular languages, Shona and Ndebele. The campaign also used existing materials that were developed by Action IEHDC and its regional partners such as the television drama "Matlakala's Story", the 2 film series "Untold Stories" and "Love Stories in a Time of HIV and AIDS", and a short booklet called "You Haven’t Met Joe"(See Related Summaries below).


The community dialogues are integral to the campaign and much of the dialogues are based around the content and issues dealt with in the mass media edutainment dramas and Public Service Announcements (PSAs). The specific objectives of the dialogues are to:

  • Stimulate dialogue and debate on SRHR issues.
  • Shift the social norms, attitudes, and beliefs of mobile populations with regards to SRHR.
  • Increase knowledge of SRH services in their communities.
  • Enhance the knowledge around contraceptive use (for dual protection, safer sex, sexually transmitted infections) and where to obtain sexual and reproductive health services.
  • Develop skills and self-efficacy and the ability to discuss safe sex, contraception, and condoms with partners, parents, and other adults.
  • Increase the number of young people who seek sexual health services including HIV Counseling and Testing.
  • Increase condom use by sexually active young people.

The community dialogues are led by trained facilitators. A community dialogue is an interactive participatory communication process of sharing information between people or groups of people designed to reach a common understanding and workable solution. Unlike debates, dialogues emphasise listening to deepen understanding. They develop common perspectives and goals and allow participants to express their own views and interests. Action IEHDC trained a sizeable number of dialogue facilitators and each facilitator received a Community Dialogue Toolkit (See Related Summaries below). Facilitators mobilise groups of 20 to 30 people among mobile populations, primarily long distance truck drivers, commercial sex workers, and young women. Facilitators also register the group members on the dialogue register and select a secretary to capture the feedback during dialogues. Participants also send feedback via SMS to Action IEHDC.

The programme was monitored and evaluated to assess progress towards meeting the objectives and to measure whether desired outcomes and impacts have been achieved. Monitoring of activities also informs ongoing work and indicates areas where greater focus is required. In addition, a process evaluation will be conducted to assess how the programme was implemented and what strategies could strengthen implementation and inform future programming.

Click here to access the Action IEHDC: Monitoring Plan for Community Dialogue in Beitbridge and the Action IEHDC: Monitoring Plan for Community Dialogue in Chirundu.

Development Issues: 

Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, HIV/AIDS, Mobile Populations

Key Points: 

The project was part of a regional initiative implemented in collaboration with Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication. According to Action Institute, population mobility and migration contribute to the phenomenon of concurrent sexual partnerships, which is one of the main drivers of the HIV epidemic in Southern Africa. Because migrants and mobile workers are regularly separated from their permanent partners, they are more inclined to engage in short or longterm sexual relations with other partners. The programme goals are in keeping with international and regional calls to accelerate HIV prevention and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – most particularly MDG 3, MDG 4, MDG 5 and MDG 6. All these MDGs include aspects of SRHR or overlapping areas such as child health.

The project is informed by research done by Action into the SRHR among mobile populations in two of Zimbabwe's border areas, Chirundu and Beitbridge. Click here to download the report "Zimbabwe Research Report on HIV Prevention Among Mobile Population".

Partner Text: 

Action Institute For Environment Health And Development Communication (Action IEHDC) and Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication

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Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon - I, a Woman, Can Achieve Anything

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"Guaranteeing universal access to equitable and good quality reproductive health information and services free from coercion and discrimination is critical for achieving gender equality and ensuring that women and young people can participate as full members of society."

Communication Strategies: 

"A woman is a full circle. Within her is the power to create, nurture and transform. To bring this notion to life, meet protagonist Sneha Mathur from Mumbai, a spirited, independent young woman, modern in her thoughts but deeply rooted in her culture. She stands up for what she believes is right, raises her voice against all that is wrong, and negotiates the space in-between with poise and grace." Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon is the story of every girl who struggles through her day-to-day life fighting for her rights. It challenges deep-rooted social issues like child marriage, early pregnancies, and sex selection in India society - dealing with topics of women's safety, health, and rights.

 

Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon is built upon lessons from past experiences and successes of EE to encourage behaviour and perception change. Messages and themes seek to foster changes in individual behavior, collective action, and policy behaviour. The creative content of the soap opera was shaped by formative research, which included a positive deviance (PD) enquiry conducted to identify those uncommon but successful behaviours or strategies which enable certain individuals to find better solutions to a problem than their peers, despite facing similar challenges and having no extra resources. These behaviours are then creatively modelled in the television serial, providing guides to viewers for action. The aim is to encourage access to voluntary family planning by breaking down social and cultural barriers. Dr. Arvind Singhal, Professor and Director, Social Justice Initiative, Department of Communication, University of Texas (United States), a thought leader in the field of PD and EE, worked closely with PFI since the inception of the programme, from guiding the overall programme design to supporting the development of the research plan and script writing.

 

Supported by the Department of International Development, Government of the United Kingdom (DFID), the first 52 episodes of will be aired on DD and will be preceded by a series of communication events and publicity to promote the serial at the national level and in selected Hindi-speaking states. While each episode will represent a piece in the longer storyline, the script will be such that different theme-based episodes could be used beyond the life of the serial. PFI will also produce a radio adaptation, funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). This has been planned keeping in mind that in rural areas of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (MP), almost 20 million households do not have access to regular electricity, which limits access to information via television. PFI will collaborate with Gram Vaani, a social technology company that will be working to develop an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for the serial and adapt messages for a community radio platform to reach the intended audience in their local languages. The IVR will seek to improve listener engagement and reach to inform and inspire positive behavioural changes in rural Bihar and MP. Furthermore, PFI and DD have discussed and agreed on the importance of dubbing the programme into regional languages for a wider reach.

 

The series will use a variety of media to increase its outreach and recall, including the internet, mobile phones, mobile video vans, Nukkad Natak (street theatre), games and quizzes, leaflets and posters, and use of social media to reach out to young population in urban areas in India.

 

To complement and extend the messaging of the serial, PFI plans to collaborate with non-governmental organisation (NGO) partners, the government, and networks working on women's empowerment, health and development issues for outreach activities at the community level in selected high-focus districts/villages of Bihar and MP. These outreach activities will include the development of audio-visual and print materials, group meetings with adolescents and young couples, community events, and Hum Kuch Bhi Kar Sakte Hain Awards at the community and block level. Partnerships with mobile communication companies will also be initiated to provide information on family planning and social determinants of health through a SO-LO-MO (social > local > mobile) approach.

Development Issues: 

Women, Rights, Family Planning, Youth

Key Points: 

According to PFI, more attention needs to be given to the importance of changing gender norms and practices within families, communities, and the health system in areas such as preventing early marriages, early and repeated pregnancies, under-nutrition of girls, and domestic violence, as well as sensitisation of boys. "Myths and misconceptions around family planning and socio-cultural barriers need to be addressed through a communication strategy that uses multiple media for optimum reach and impact."

 

The Hindi speaking belt was selected for this initiative, as data show that over 42% of Indians live in 5 states in this region (Bihar, Jharkhand, MP, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh), which also record high unmet need for family planning. Specifically, unmet need for spacing in Bihar is as high as 21%; this figure is 14% in MP. Unmet need for contraception is as high as 21.2% in Uttar Pradesh. According to PFI, although recent trends in population indices in India have been very encouraging, India's growing population continues to be a cause for concern. "There are several myths and misconceptions about the nature of the population 'problem' and what needs to be done to achieve rapid population stabilization. While it is theoretically accepted that family planning cannot be treated as a vertical program, in practice in India it continues to be so with sterilization as the dominant method of contraception available to people. This is also reflected in the data on contraceptive use. The use of modern contraceptives in Bihar is 34%, of which 29% is female sterilization; in Madhya Pradesh total modern contraceptive use is 57% with 48% being female sterilization and in Odisha the figures are 44% and 30% for overall use and female sterilization. The projected population growth can be slowed down mainly by delaying age at marriage and childbearing in women. A shocking 47.4% of Indian women aged 20-24 years were married by the age of 18; the proportion was 68% in Bihar, 54% in Madhya Pradesh and 37.5% in Odisha."

 

PFI reports that the reach of television in India has been increasing rapidly over the years. The number of households owning a television increased from 32% in 2001 to 47% in 2011. Television soap operas have been the most watched programmes since the mid-1980s, and their popularity has been growing rapidly ever since. Due to its non-dependency on electricity, radio is an effective mass communication medium, according to PFI. In Bihar and MP, 15% people listen to radio, of which 68% listen to All India Radio. Share of radio listenership on mobile phones increased from 20% in 2009 to 25% in 2011. Forty percent of mobile phones have in-built FM radio.

 

There is evidence that soap operas impact behaviours and attitudes on issues related to family planning. For example, evaluations of television serials like Hum Log, Jasoos Vijay, and Kyunki Jeena Isi ka Naam Hai have shown an impact on self-efficacy and collective efficacy, which resulted in changes in social norms. EE telenovelas produced in Mexico between 1975 and 1982 showed a visible impact on adult education, family planning, and gender equality. "Taru", an Indian radio soap opera, has - according to PFI - inspired collective efficacy and community action to solve social problems. In Abirpur village, young female and male members of Taru listeners' groups, after seven months of discussion and deliberation, started an open-air school for underprivileged children, inspired by the character of Neha in the serial. Some 50 children regularly attended school, meeting six days a week, from 4 to 6 p.m. by the village well.

Partner Text: 

DFID, DD, UNFPA, Soul City, and Gram Vaani

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Source: 

Emails from Arvind Singhal on February 5 2014 and February 24 2014, and from Sona Sharma on February 7 2014, to The Communication Initiative; and communication from Arvind Singhal on March 18 2016.

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Agent Zee Project

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Launched in 2012, Agent Zee is a comic and social media project that engages students with information, insights, and inspiration to navigate the world of science and technology in Africa, particularly focusing on encouraging women in science. The project centres on the character Agent Zee, "a science diva and Bachelor of Science student who is far from ordinary." Led by Jive Media, the project is working to address the issue of under-representation of woman in the sciences.

Communication Strategies: 

According to Jive Media, internationally and in South Africa, women remain under-represented in the sciences. Addressing this, and the many challenges faced by African women in science, is crucial to bring science and society closer together. Agent Zee talks to young scientists and exposes them to opportunities, information, and role models. The initiative includes a comic, regular competitions to connect with students, as well as interviews with people working in the science industry.

Information is distributed through a weekly newsletter, the Agent Zee website, Agent Zee facebook page, and @agentzee on twitter.

Click here to access the Agent Zee comics.

Development Issues: 

Science, Education, Women

agent_zee.jpg
Source: 

Jive Media website and Agent zee website on February 2 2014.

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Everyday Heroes Comic Book Campaign

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The Everyday Heroes Comic Book campaign was launched in 2012 as part of a victim empowerment programme initiated by the South African government to respond to the growing needs of victims of crime and violence. Jive Media Africa designed and implemented the campaign, which highlights the role of communities in supporting victims of crime and violence, for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in association with the National Department of Social Development (DSD).

Communication Strategies: 

Six comic stories make up the Everyday Heroes series highlighting issues such as sexual assault, domestic violence, child sexual abuse, human trafficking, abuse of older persons, and abuse of people with disabilities. Available in six South Africa languages, the comics are set in the vibrant and multi-cultural peri-urban community of Bhekanani (meaning "help one another"), South Africa. In this community, like any community, there are rich and poor, old and young people. There is also good and evil, lurking in the darkness of the shadows, personified by a local kingpin and his sidekicks, and "Everyday Heroes". The heroes include, "Batho Pele" professionals, such as the police, the nurses and the social workers, but they also include ordinary men and women who "refuse to let evil prosper." These characters include:

  • Gogo "Magic" Mkhize - firm but fair, the mother of the community.
  • Ntate Moloi - the elderly driver and messenger at a local law firm who has overcome his own childhood experiences of domestic violence.
  • DJ Life - the radio disk jockey whose disability does nothing to stop him from living life to the full, and his new friend Jerome who overcomes his own disability.
  • S'bongile - the single parent and social worker whose caring nature is known to all.
  • Mothusi - the courageous policewoman who won't be intimidated.

Click here to download the comics.

The contract also involved developing a website, animatics, a distribution strategy, as well as carrying out a pilot project and M&E.

Development Issues: 

Crime and violence

Key Points: 

United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime, European Union, Department of Social Development

everyday_heroes.jpg
Source: 

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Change the Story: Refugees and Migrants Speak Against GBV

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Launched in November 2013, Change the Story: Refugees and Migrants Speak Against GBV is a 3-part series of short radio dramas highlighting factors that make refugees and migrant communities vulnerable to sexual violence, as well as the challenges for accessing care and treatment services. The dramas were created in a participatory workshop with a mixed group of refugees, migrants, and South Africans, and are accompanied by talking points designed to promote discussion.

Communication Strategies: 

According to the producers, while all women and girls face challenges reporting any kind of violence, refugees and migrants face added barriers of language, lack of knowledge of local systems and rights, not knowing where to go, few support systems, and at times xenophobic responses. One of the key responses of the South African government to sexual violence has been the establishment of Thuthuzela Care Centres (TCCs) under the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. The TCCs are one-stop facilities offering comprehensive services to victims of sexual violence. To help promote awareness, encourage dialogue, and urge care seeking among migrants and refugees, Sonke Gender Justice and CMFD Production worked with 20 refugees, migrants, and South Africans to develop, write, and voice the 3 mini-dramas. The dramas were all written collaboratively, and voiced by the participants themselves.

The dramas are intended to raise awareness about a wide range of issues, inclusing sexual harassment, reporting a case, and contexts that make migrant communities particularly vulnerable:

  • Leaving Home - Facing Sexual Harassment: In the first drama, Chipo travels to a neighbouring country to help support her impoverished family. However, things turn sour for her when her boss starts sexually harassing her, and then worse. She remains quiet about the ongoing rape and violence, until a neighbour speaks up to direct her to a nearby TCC.
  • I have the right - Reporting a Case: In the second drama Lerato and Ellen turn to the police to help stop violence in their homes. Officer Katlego is unhelpful, but also xenophobic towards Ellen. In the end, they both find the help they need when another officer steps in.
  • Dangerous Borders - Vulnerable in Transit: In the last drama, Lisa flees her abusive uncle, the person who she has lived with since the day her parents were killed in the violence that has caused havoc in her country. On the road, she is sexually assaulted by a taxi driver, and the psychological trauma remains long after her bruises have healed.

The dramas are accompanied by a series of discussion guides for radio presenters, to help them create stories and reports around the issues, host discussions, ask questions, and present accurate facts. As part of 16 Days of Activism activities, community radio stations will be broadcasting the drama, as well as inviting guests and listeners to discuss the rights issues it raises.

Development Issues: 

Gender Based Violence, Migration

sonke_mini_drama.jpg
Partner Text: 

Sonke Gender Justice, CMFD Productions

Source: 

CMFD website on November 27 2013.

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Soul City

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El Instituto para la Salud y la Comunicación para el Desarrollo Soul City, con base en Johannesburgo (Sudáfrica), implementa una estrategia multimedia de comunicación que usa la televisión y la radio para influenciar las normas sociales, las actitudes y comportamientos de las personas.

Es reconocido internacionalmente como líder en la promoción de la salud pública y fue fundado por Garth Japhet, médico y periodista ocasional, con el propósito de poner los medios de información al servicio de la prevención del VIH/SIDA y promover estilos de vida más saludables.

Communication Strategies: 

El proyecto persigue un enfoque dinámico e integrado de los medios de comunicación:

Series para televisión:
 Sus dos series, Soul City y Soul Buddyz, tienen como público meta adolescentes entre los 8 y los 18 años y personas adultas. La primera serie de televisión, Soul City, que muestra cómo la violencia doméstica afecta a las mujeres en Sudáfrica, se convirtió en un éxito instantáneo y desde entonces la organización continúa evolucionando.
En 1999, se lanzó la serie Soul Buddyz, dirigida a niñas y niños de 8 a 12 años, en la que se discuten los problemas propios de esa generación, así como sus preocupaciones en la escuela, el hogar y sus comunidades.
Soul City diseña y ejecuta procesos de investigación científica para retroalimentar la elaboración de sus guiones de forma que garanticen su efectividad educativa. Al iniciar cada serie, Soul City selecciona tres o cuatro temas relacionados con la salud y el desarrollo e inicia una serie de consultas con expertos/as, grupos de la sociedad civil, médicos/as y académicos/as para garantizar la objetividad y calidad de la información proporcionada.
Los equipos de investigación de Soul City también desarrollan largos procesos de consulta con las audiencias para tratar de entender qué saben acerca del tema, cómo se sienten y que obstáculos les impiden practicar el comportamiento deseado.
Los guiones de cada capítulo son escritos sobre la base de la información e insumos obtenidos en esas consultas, y son finalmente puestos a prueba para verificar su valor educativo y de entretenimiento antes de iniciar los procesos de producción, transmisión y distribución de los materiales multimedia.

 Folletos y periódicos:
Soul City utiliza materiales impresos para apoyar los mensajes más amplios que se difunden a través de los medios electrónicos,y para complementar los conocimientos con información más detallada. Los folletos se publican como suplementos en diez diarios nacionales. Las clínicas y proyectos comunitarios reciben a su vez copias delas publicaciones.

Relaciones públicas y publicidad:
 La estrategia de difusión tiene una función doble: divulgar las series de TV y radio, y llamar la atención sobre ciertos tópicos de salud. Mediante concursos por radio, TV y prensa,se estimulan también comportamientos comunitarios y a favorde la salud.

 Módulos de educación para la salud:
Para mejorar el conocimiento y la toma de conciencia generados porla serie de TV, Soul City utiliza en el contexto educativo formal einformal, otros materiales tradicionales para jóvenes y adultos: tirascómicas, audiocasetes y libros con ejercicios prácticos.

 Series para la radio:
Cada serie de televisión está acompañada por un programa de radio que se transmite en 9 de los 11 lenguajes oficiales en Sudáfrica y materiales impresos como folletos y guías para la capacitación.

El Club Soul Buddyz:
Surgió a partir del éxito y la popularidad que tuvo Soul Buddyz, proyecto multimedia dirigido a estudiantes de séptimo grado que incluye además de la serie de televisión, una serie de ficción radial y distintos materiales educativos e interactivos. Club Soul Buddyz es una especie de movimiento infantil que apoya a estudiantes entre 8 y 12 años de edad, a establecer clubes en sus propias escuelas.
Existen más de 5 mil clubes en todo el país con 100 mil niñas y niños miembros. Esta red de clubes infantiles ha sido bien acogida y apoyada por el Departamento de Educación a nivel nacional y local. A través de un proceso estructurado todos los clubes Soul Buddyz reciben una variedad de materiales informativos sobre distintos temas y problemáticas sociales o de salud. Los materiales también contienen actividades que permiten a las niñas y niños del club desarrollar habilidades para comprender mejor e interiorizar los temas abordados y las lecciones aprendidas durante el proceso.

Development Issues: 

Salud, eduentretenimiento, género, derechos, juventud, abogacía.

Key Points: 

Soul City colabora con organizaciones civiles de ocho países de la región Sudafricana (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swazilandia, Namibia, Zambia y Zimbabwe) para fortalecer las capacidades de las mismas en el diseño e implementación de programas de comunicación para la salud.

En estas colaboraciones el socio local escoge los materiales de Soul City (televisión, radio y/o materiales impresos) que desea adoptar y adaptar a sus contextos locales. Por ejemplo, en Namibia la nueva serie producida se llama Desert Soul, en Malawi es Pakachere y en Zimbabwe es Action Pals.

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