The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative

Created by the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), the Vietnam Handwashing Initiative aims to reduce disease and mortality through a behaviour change communication (BCC) programme to promote handwashing with soap among caretakers of children under 5 and among primary school children aged 6-10 years. The initiative includes both: (i) a national mass media campaign geared toward children, and (ii) a school-based interpersonal communication activities campaign. It aims to ensure that semi-urban and rural schoolchildren will:

Communication Strategies: 

Campaign development started with formative research conducted in July 2008 amongst children in 6 primary schools from 3 provinces to represent northern, central, and southern regions of Vietnam; in each province, one peri-urban and one rural area were chosen. Research methods included:

  • Family structure diagrams were developed by each child to learn about the social relationships within the child's household and how those relationships might affect children's ability to wash hands with soap. This method used pictures where the child (shown at the centre of the paper) drew lines to the person in the home they were closest to, spent the most time with, feared most, and so on.
  • Daily diaries were used to learn about what children do from morning to evening. Drawings of two clocks (one for morning, one for afternoon/evening hours) were used for children to fill in activities that they did for each hour(s) per day. This was done as a group exercise.
  • A series of Motivation Pictures showing various handwashing scenes were presented to children and they were asked to tell a story based on how they interpreted the pictures. The objective was to understand the emotional driver for washing hands such as disgust, morality, shame, regret, and so on.
  • Students were asked to name their favourite role models, the reasons for their admiration and to list the careers they wanted.
  • Belief interviews were conducted with individual students to understand what children believe are the benefits to washing hands with soap, the causes of diarrhoea, and so on.
  • In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with headmasters and teachers were carried out to understand the school's organisation.
  • Direct observations were made of water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in both schools and homes to understand access and availability of water and soap.

Amongst the findings: a leading motivator for handwashing with soap is the desire to prevent others from getting sick (especially younger brothers and sisters). This and other findings were incorporated into a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign for children, launched in August 2009, using the theme "pride of the family". Handwashing with soap was positioned as an easy, fun, and smart behaviour with a tagline of "Wash your hands with soap for your own health and the health of others around you". WSP supported its partners to work with an advertising agency to develop a programme using an entertainment/education approach that was designed to generate interest and enthusiasm while promoting the practice of handwashing with soap. As a result, a campaign with colourful, attractive, and positive characters was developed around a superhero that gets special powers by handwashing with soap in order to help his family and others.

 

Rather than a top-down education approach, the campaign combined mass media and interpersonal communications activities. A series of 10 cartoon strips was printed in the weekly national children's "Youth" magazine beginning in September 2009. These were made into animated cartoons shown on the nightly children's television show "Goodnight Baby" beginning in March 2010. In addition, children's games were modified for use in schools along with singing of the "Five Clean Fingers" song used in the programme for mothers and grandmothers. A set of guidelines and an instructional DVD were made for training teachers about how to play the games as an addition to existing lessons on handwashing with soap. Each school within the programme areas will carry out 5 extracurricular activities throughout the year, including participating in a national handwashing drawing contest through the "Youth" magazine.

Development Issues: 

Children, Health.

Key Points: 

Vietnam is one of 4 countries within the WSP's Global Scaling-Up Handwashing Project (funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation), which focuses on learning how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behaviour change to generate widespread and sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women of reproductive age (ages 15-49) and primary school-aged children (ages 5-9). Other countries include Peru, Senegal, and Tanzania.

 

Over 10,000 students have been reached thus far through the school programme, and an estimated 630,000 children have been reached via the mass media programme. Lessons learned so far include:

  • The consumer research state is crucial in developing a BCC campaign, as findings are very important for identifying the factors that determine behaviour and are used to make the campaign objectives.
  • Research tools need to be developed that can uncover the individual, family, and larger society factors that may help or stop people from washing hands with soap.
  • The normal research tools used with adults such as focus group discussion and in-depth interviews may not give enough useful insight needed as many children easily get bored with questions and are easily influenced by the responses of their friends. Thus, research activities need to be varied, participatory, and fun. Children should be allowed to take the lead. Pictures are a useful and easy way to get information and start discussion.
  • During brainstorming activities, it may be better to ask children to list only their top 3 choices rather than listing all of their ideas.
  • During pretesting, it is crucial to test at least 2 different campaign ideas; this ensures that audiences are provided a chance to respond to alternative concepts rather than only making comments on variations of the same concept. In this case, the campaign was tested with 2 different characters: a cartoon rabbit character and a more realistic rural school boy, Bi, who becomes a superhero. The character of Bi was more acceptable to children, and was further refined and pretested again several times before the final production. Ideally, there should be at least 2 rounds of pretesting.
  • Research and pretesting should be done by an experienced person who has worked with children before and who can turn the discussion into an activity or game to help keep the children's attention.
  • Timing is crucial. Start early when children are attentive and alert. Limit each group activity to one hour including a short break.
  • "The advertising agency was given the results of the children's research, as well as guidelines. However the agency did not use these fully. Although the creative ideas looked good, WSP and its partners often had to supervise closely so that the creative ideas reflected the research findings."

Ghana Behaviour Change Support Project

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The Ghana Behaviour Change Support (BCS) project is a four-year multi media project, running from 2009 to 2013, assisting the Ghana Health Service (GHS) at the national, regional, and district levels to achieve health-related millennium development goals.

Communication Strategies: 

According to JHUCCP, the BCS project is audience focused and driven by the community and family levels, where behaviour and norms are formed. The primary focus is on households with children and youth, and the communities they live in, the providers they go to, and the district and national leaders that impact them. The project employs the Communication for Social change model, which blends community, interpersonal, and mass media approaches to build synergy around three strategic elements or engines:

  • Addressing a wide spectrum of health topics simultaneously through an integrated approach, Ghana BCS is creating educational and entertaining programmes/series that will go on over the duration of the project.
  • Utilising BCC campaigns to focus on one or two specific health issues at a time with high intensity and limited duration.
  • Working closely with regional, district, and sub-district health teams to build and strengthen the network of local non-governmental organisations to undertake effective and synergised community mobilisation in both rural and urban settings.

The BCS programme includes the following core activities:

    GoodLife Game Show: The purpose of the GoodLife Game Show is to entertain, inform, and educate audiences through an exciting platform that engages and challenges people to adopt healthy living habits. It is designed to move health messages beyond instructive commands to engaging people on issues relevant to their own daily lives.
  • GoodLife music: A large pool of both well known and new Ghanaian musicians submitted tracks for the GoodLife song. The "GoodLife Allstars," a group of young musicians, were selected from these applicants and recorded the song and video. The GoodLife song is part of the overarching multimedia campaign. In addition, a GoodLife New Years concert featured many popular Ghanaian artists including Iwan, Ohemaa Mercy, VIP, 4X4, Castro, Bra Kevin, 2 Toff, Borax, Atsu Koliko and many more.
  • Aha ye de: It’s Good Here: In June 2011 BCS and ProMPT, in partnership with the National Malaria Control Programme and the Ghana Health Service, launched the "Aha ye de" malaria campaign. "Aha ye de" means "It’s Good Here" in Twi, one of Ghana’s national languages. The campaign is designed to reposition the use of treated nets as a lifestyle decision, while at the same time preventing malaria, linking the BCS’s overarching GoodLife campaign. The "Aya ye de" campaign also included music by the Ghanaian hip hop artist Nana Boroo. GoodLife Materials: The project produced GoodLife mass media campaign materials, including billboards, posters, stickers and TV spots, as well as the Daily GoodLife Guide and GoodLife Quiz.

  • The Life Choices Family Planning Initiative: Family planning is one of five focal project areas, and the Life Choices Family Planning Initiative is an integral part of the Behavior Change Support Project in Ghana. There are three elements to the family planning programme. These include demand for family planning services, supply of contraceptives, and quality of services provided. Life Choices, which includes a music video for the "Life is what you make it" song, five-minute docu-dramas, and television spots, is the campaign that focuses on the demand for family planning services. As part of the initiative, “Life Choices” signboards and radio spots were flighted throughout three focus regions, and campaign support materials developed, including, press advertorial, flipchart, booklets, brochures, posters, and bumper stickers. A Family Planning Community Action Kit was produced, which includes the Youth Action Kit, Coach Guides, Teen Passport, and Trigger Sketches.

Click here to access the campaign materials and publications.

Development Issues: 

Maternal Neonatal & Child Health, Family Planning, Malaria Prevention & Treatment, Nutrition, Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene

Partner Text: 

USAID, Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Ministry of Health, Ghana Health Service (GHS), CARE, PLAN International

Source: 

JHUCCP website on December 18 2011.

Red Card Campaign

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The Red Card Campaign, which ran between May and Dec 2010, used the sports metaphor of a red card to focus attention on the need to reduce children's, especially girls’ vulnerability to sexual exploitation during and after the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.

Communication Strategies: 

Focusing in Johannesburg and Cape Town, 22 partner organisations participated in training and roll-out of activities designed to increase awareness of sexual exploitation and increase the ability and willingness of people to intervene to prevent and/or report it. Sonke developed an integrated set of activities that were also intended to change attitudes and behaviour, especially among men and boys. Overall, the campaign was designed to ensure that participants and viewers understood both the legal and the ethical dimensions of sexual exploitation broadly, but with an emphasis on the particular gravity of sexual exploitation of children.
The campaign used the following strategies.

 

Ambush Theatre
One of the key strategies of the campaign was the strong emphasis on Ambush Theatre. Also called Invisible Theatre, this involves the performance of a thought-provoking scene in a public space, without passers-by being aware that it is theatre. The audience is drawn into the action and invited to participate in a discussion of the issues. Sonke adopted this as a key means of raising awareness about sexual exploitation and demonstrating the Red Card approach. The Red Card toolkit included instructions on how to perform Ambush Theatre and an Ambush Theatre instructional video and real-world demonstration, filmed in Cape Town at the Claremont taxi rank during the campaign activation. The performance shows how Ambush Theatre can be used to get attention and spark debate and discussions around sexual exploitation of children and the "fouls" that deserve the Red Card.

 

Use of Media
Campaign messages were published and broadcast across local and national print, radio, and television media to reach people across the country. Ranging from Scrutinize television animerts which were broadcast widely on national TV during the World Cup, to radio public service announcements, interviews and full-page magazine ads, the media aspect of the campaign, sought to raise general awareness about child sexual exploitation, calling on the public to step in and stop potentially harmful situations.
In preparation for the campaign launch day, Sonke conducted training with selected volunteers from different communities. The training focused on forms of sexual exploitation, particularly involving children, and on how to use the Red Card as a tool to stop it. Participants learnt about "red card fouls", such as having sex with someone under age or buying stuff to get sex from a young person, and were equipped with red cards to use when they encounter any of these situations. Selected partner organisations were also been engaged, sensitised, and trained on the Red Card methodology and assisted in the role out of the campaign.
Partner organisation, Grassroots Soccer, worked with youth during their holiday camps to explain child sexual exploitation and its implications in terms of HIV risk. They distributed over 200,000 Red Cards through the Skillz Holiday Supplement and incorporated the Red Card approach into their curriculum for continued use.

Development Issues: 

Sexual Exploitation, HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

According to Sonke, in terms of scope, the campaign reached a large number of people directly through training and public activities, and had a further media reach of millions of people. In total, 1,163 people completed the Sonke Red Card training which enabled them to roll out the campaign further, and 12,126 learners completed the Grassroot Soccer Red Card module. Initial workshop assessments indicated that, especially amongst Grassroot Soccer’s young participants, knowledge of the links between HIV and inter-generational sex improved significantly.

See video
Source: 

Benin Integrated Family Health Project

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Working since 2006 in the department of Zou-Collines, the Integrated Family Health Project, also known by its French acronym PISAF, focuses on maternal and neonatal health, child health, malaria, family planning, and HIV/AIDS. PISAF's three main objectives are to create a supportive implementation environment, increase access to quality services and products, and increase demand for health services, products, and preventive measures.

Communication Strategies: 

PISAF's activities are designed to support the Government of Benin’s national policies and strategies to improve the health status of the people of Benin. PISAF collaborates with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), government agencies, other donors and USAID projects, communities, and the private sector, including 147 public and 28 private health facilities. In late 2010, PISAF received additional resources to focus on the prevention and repair of obstetric fistula and improvements in vaccination coverage in Zou/Collines.

PISAF’s approach includes developing an integrated family health service delivery package; increasing access to services and essential family health medicines through logistics support; and supporting service integration, monitoring, and outreach support, among other strategies. In terms of communication, PISAF’s strategy focuses on community mobilisation campaigns to increase demand for quality products and services, as well as raising awareness among communities, health workers, and others about the causes, prevention, and treatment of malaria.

In 2009, PISAF produced and disseminated information, education and communication and behaviour change communication tools. This included updating the inventory of available IEC materials, analysing the materials for community relevance, and then adapting or translating them into local languages. Noting a lack of IEC/BCC media in the waiting rooms of health facilities in Zou/Collines, PISAF recorded a 50-minute DVD to be shown at clinics, entitled Le Bonheur du Ménage (The Happy Household) with two parts: 1) an awareness sketch on FP and 2) accounts from women, men, and community leaders on the advantages of family planning.

PISAF also implemented multimedia campaigns on family health issues to provide accurate health information to the communities. For example, PISAF signed ten partnership contracts with local radio stations, and service contracts with three popular theater companies, one primary school theater company, and one popular traditional musical group to create family health programming. In addition, 15 hosts from radio stations received training on designing, editing, and broadcasting radio messages to prevent and treat uncomplicated malaria in the home, prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, and on Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs), a new community level health insurance system. This culminated with the development of eight scripts for spots on MHOs that were translated into three languages, and then recorded, edited, and made ready for broadcasting.

PISAF also collaborated with local elected officials to involve them effectively in malaria control efforts in Zou/ Collines, providing orientation about the causes, signs, consequences, prevention, and treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the home. According to PISAF, after receiving training these leaders committed to direct involvement in controlling malaria in Zou/Collines through social mobilisation and advocacy activities.

As part of providing community-based care, community liaisons were trained in the management of childhood illnesses. Monthly follow-up sessions with community liaisons were held to strengthen their capacities, in particular in completing the management tools. Community stakeholders and care providers were also trained to improve the quality of services and care and to strengthen preventive measures by implementing awareness campaigns.

Through the President’s Malaria Initiative, PISAF is building the capacity of health services staff and managers and strengthening facility-based services. It is also working to build stronger data collection and reporting systems for malaria at the national level, as well as build the capacity of health services staff and managers and strengthen facility-based services.

Development Issues: 

Maternal health, Child health, Malaria, Family planning, HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

According to PISAF, achievements have included the following:

  • identified and referred 39 cases of obstetric fistula from Zou/Collines for repair, with an overall success rate of 79% in a four-month period;
  • evaluated health system management in Zou/Collines, thus providing information on the current level of indicators calculated in 2006 to determine the progress PISAF had made;
  • Designed logistics management software and a web platform, Medistock, and scaled it up to the national level; ;
  • through the malaria collaborative, helped 52 health facilities in Zou/Collines increase their performance by 52% in treating febrile children under five with artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs); and
  • facilitated the creation of 57 mutuelles to improve financial access to health services and spearheaded a national forum to enhance the professionalism of these organisations and promote collaboration among them.

Fundación Huésped - Huésped Foundation - Argentina

Cadena

Fundación Huésped is an Argentinean organisation that has been part of the fight against AIDS since 1989. The foundation sees AIDS as both a biological disease that is transmitted between people as well as an important social problem that requires an adequate community environment to support people living with the HIV virus. The foundation’s objectives are:

Communication Strategies: 

General strategies for prevention stem from the assumption that information and training are basic tools to combat AIDS.

  • Holistic AIDS prevention;
  • Social and epidemiological investigations in diverse populations;
  • Training and technical assistance for community groups and organisations, and healthcare and education stakeholders who are involved with the issue;
  • Broad prevention strategies directed at both the general population and vulnerable groups;
  • Organisation of local networks and mobilisation of diverse stakeholders: healthcare stakeholders, the educational system, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community organisations, and groups of people who live with HIV.
  • Multiplication of public prevention messages among peers, community participation, and local leadership development;and
  • Advocacy for specific public policies through the coordination with municipal and provincial decision-makers. 

 

The foundation develops printed materials and public campaigns (graphic, radio, and television materials) in order to make information about AIDS available to everyone in clear, simple, and effective ways. In May 2005, the foundation launched a new prevention campaign, "Yo también," (Me, too). In this campaign, people wear red, silicon bracelets to make their participation in the fight against AIDS public. "Yo también" provides a vehicle to openly support the fight against the epidemic, to show solidarity with people living with HIV/AIDS, and to propagate a message of social commitment capable of multiplying among the population.

 

Huésped views its strategy to get prevention messages into the mass media as key to stopping the spread of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination. Every year on December 1st, World AIDS Day, the foundation puts a television program on Channel 13 with time donated by the station, the actors, and others, to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS. The programmes, which are available on the foundation website are Sútiles Diferencias (Subtle Differences), Revelaciones (Revelations), Oportunidades (Opportunities), Reparaciones (Reparations), Hoy Me Desperté (Today I Woke Up), Cortos que Animan (Motivating Shorts), and Preventoons (cartoons for primary school children on HIV/AIDS prevention).

 

Current campaigns include a blog called "Espacio Positivo" (Positive Space) and active sites on social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Sonico, Taringa. The campaigns present many videos, spots, and presentations on YouTube.

 

Fundación Huésped: provides technical and methodological training for primary and middle school teachers; works with NGOs and community groups to raise awareness; trains managerial personnel at major corporations such as Burger King and Starbucks; coordinates internships at the university level, as well as a Masters level public health degree with an emphasis on HIV/AIDS; and provides virtual training yearly to infectious disease medical personnel to keep them abreast of the latest in HIV/AIDS research.

 

Fundación Huésped also provides free legal assistance and free psychological services, participates and runs clinical investigations, runs a bio-ethics committee that looks out for the respect of human beings during procedures, and operates a network of volunteers who serve HIV/AIDS patients with everything from accompaniment and conversation to orientation for family members.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS, Youth

Key Points: 

The Huésped Foundation provides economic support for the Home "Los Querubines" which is located in the northern part of Greater Buenos Aires and houses at risk children and abandoned children living with the HIV virus or children who lost their parents to AIDS. The Foundation also annually finances 500 "cluster of differentiation 4" (CD4) and viral load studies (both studies related to immunie systems and HIV) for low-income patients at five Argentinean hospitals.

 

In many of its focused interventions, the foundation prioritises work in vulnerable communities with less education and who belong to the poorest and most excluded sectors of society. In 2000, the foundation launched the Braille Red Ribbon project that provides information on HIV/AIDS to blind and vision-impaired people in Braille and through talking books.

Partner Text: 

Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Fondo Mundial de Lucha contra el Sida, la Tuberculosis y la Malaria, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (ONUSIDA), among others.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Fundación Huésped webpage, November 8 2011.

Tchova Tchova, Juntos Vamos Mudar

Tchova Tchova, Juntos Vamos Mudar (Push, Push, Together We Are Going to Change), the Social and Behavioral Change Communication project for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Capacity Building was a 3-year project (2007-2010) carried out by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (JHUCCP) and partners in Mozambique. CCP implemented a coordinated communication approach to target one of the main drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic - multiple concurrent partnerships (MCP) - by tackling underlying social and gender factors.

Communication Strategies: 

Tchova Tchova used large-scale communication interventions and community-based approaches in an effort to catalyse change in harmful social and behavioural norms through:

  • A 12-minute radio magazine - Tchova Tchova - Escutando Podemos Mudar (Push, Push - Through Listening We Can Change) - which addressed a variety of HIV/AIDS-related topics through 34 programmes, which featured the entertainment-education strategy.
  • An HIV/AIDS prevention gender tool - Tchova-Tchova Histórias de Vida Diálogos Comunitários (TTHV) - which features - amongst other elements - 10 video and written profiles of Mozambican "positive deviant" men, women, and couples telling their stories of how they overcame gender, cultural, and social barriers with a specific focus on HIV treatment and prevention. [Editor's note: see "Related Summaries" below to access this tool.]
  • A partnership with Moçambique em Acção (Mozambique in Action), the social responsibility division of Mozambique's STV main private broadcaster, to produce and air ten 2-hour television programmes in which the TTHV video profiles were presented and then discussed with a panel of adults.
  • A project to dub 26 episodes of the South African HIV/AIDS drama series Tsha Tsha into Portuguese and to produce facilitation guides to be used at the community level, linking up with the TTHV initiative.
  • A multimedia campaign - Andar Fora e Maningue Arriscado (Stepping out Is Very Risky) - on the risks of multiple concurrent partnerships (MCP) and social approval of new social and gender norms among married couples.
  • An expansion of the HIV/AIDS Advocacy Toolkit for District Administrators, which reached 750 political and community leaders (regulos, traditional healers, rite of passage counsellors, religious leaders, and village secretaries). [Click here to access a set of visual cue cards featuring topics such as MCP, HIV/AIDS-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection, stigma at the community level, and the protection of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC).]
  • An effort to increase the quantity and quality of media coverage of HIV/AIDS issues through 3 training workshops for 75 journalists and social communicators, the purpose of which was to build journalists' skills as well as to share accurate information on HIV/AIDS transmission patterns and preventive behaviours - as well as the formation of a Media Journalist Network.

In addition, Tchova Tchova worked in the area of communication for HIV prevention and treatment services. Specifically, JHUCCP assisted the Ministry of Health (MOH) to increase treatment-seeking behaviours and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) literacy and adherence, as well as to reduce stigma and promote HIV services. JHUCCP produced a package of training materials and a set of job aids (Six Tips for Interpersonal Communication), and the project supported the development of a set of counselling and communication tools for providers across HIV services and client materials.

 

Finally, Tchova Tchova endeavoured to strengthen capacity among Conselho Nacional de Combate ao HIV/Sida em Moçambique / National AIDS Council (CNCS) and MOH Education Unit staff to conduct large-scale communication strategies and coordinate mass media and communication activities at the national and provincial level.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS, Gender.

Partner Text: 

JHUCCP with World Vision, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, and N'Weti to support the Mozambique Ministry of Health, National AIDS Council, and many civil society and media organisations. Funding from the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

Contact Information: 
See video
Source: 

JHUCCP website, October 31 2011.

Talking Frankly

Developed with children in grades six through ten across Jordan, Talking Frankly is designed to make school a place to learn about making healthy lifestyle choices and adopting health behaviours. An initiative of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) as part of a private-public partnership, Taking Frankly was launched in 2009 and has since been implemented in over 40 schools in an effort to raise awareness about the health issues that arise with puberty.

Communication Strategies: 

This initiative involved the provision of information in the form of printed materials, including: the installation of 18 health rooms in girls' schools where the girls receive general information about health issues and can acquire feminine hygiene products; the development and distribution of two booklets (for boys and girls) addressing a range of topics, including changes that come with puberty, nutrition for adolescents, the importance of physical activity, and proper hygiene; and the creation of a pamphlet for parents teaching them how to better understand their teenage children.

 

Talking Frankly also included a competition between the schools for the healthiest and cleanest school environments. Forty-six schools from across Jordan participated in the competition, which assessed the management of health at the schools, the overall hygiene level at the schools, and the students’ understanding of health issues. The students performed skits about health subjects, including puberty, hygiene, nutrition, smoking and exercise, and prepared exhibitions on the same range of topics. An awards ceremony, held in July, celebrated the efforts of schools across Amman, Zarqa, Irbid, Ajloun, and Balqa'a.

 

In order to ensure the sustainability of the “Talking Frankly” initiative, broaden its reach, and seek continued interaction between the public and private sectors, JHCP has developed an interactive, educational website designed to help students continue to learn about their own health in a fun and enjoyable way by participating in a competition and allowing contestants with the highest results to win many prizes. Students can also continue discussion about health topics and download the informational booklets.

Development Issues: 

Children, Youth, Health.

Key Points: 

Quotes from three female student-participants in Talking Frankly include thanking the initiative for giving them "this opportunity to understand more about my body and the physical changes I am passing through", "the chance to respect the way I look and to deal with my body properly", and "the chance to learn on how and what I should do to keep my personal hygiene."

Partner Text: 

With funding from USAID: the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHUCCP), the Ministries of Education and Health, Fine Hygienic Paper Company, and Fine Sancella Hygiene Jordan.

Source: 

JHUCCP website, October 24 2011.

Happy Dampatti (Happy Couple)

"Talking openly about family planning is not usual behavior for people residing in slums of Agra, India..."

Communication Strategies: 

Going door-to-door, UHI peer educators clad in Happy Dampatti branded t-shirts reached more than 1,000 eligible couples in the intervention slums and encouraged them to participate in the contest. They communicated the fact that the 5 secrets of a "Happy Dampatti" include: spousal communication about the family's dreams, consistent use of contraceptives, immediate postpartum family planning, immediate post-abortion family planning, and male responsibility in planning for the future. Their promotion effort was aided by announcements from branded rickshaws and rickshaw microphone announcements, stilt walkers, wall paintings, posters and banners, radio promo spots, text messages (SMSs) sent to over 2000 mobile phone users with the contest signature jingle set as the ringtone on the cell phones of all staff.

 

Also included in the effort are "enrollment camps". The programme seeks to engage the community and draw people out of their homes for counselling on family planning and referrals to service, so couples had to visit the colourful Happy Dampatti enrollment camps to officially enroll in the contest. At these camps, trained staff counselled couples on family planning, assisting with choosing a method and promoting inter-spousal dialogue. Couples were referred to family planning services at local facilities. Staff also sold socially-marketed contraceptives. Over 3 days, more than 150 couples were counselled, over 100 packets of condoms were sold and more than 100 referrals were made for intrauterine devices (IUDs).

 

Happy Dampattis were selected through a range of activities, including games, a contraceptive quiz, personal family planning stories, and role plays. For example, existing successful contraceptive users recorded their stories about accepting family planning and overcoming barriers on video. These videos were judged by an independent jury who selected 12 finalists. At the Happy Dampatti main event on December 26, 5 overall winners were chosen through games and competitions, which were attended by over 3,000 people, as well as by senior government officials, public and private health care providers and the media. The event was telecast on two local television networks. The No. 1 Happy Dampatti was announced, but all of the couples were celebrated through local media (billboards, in the press, and on radio and television) channels as exemplary models for the use of family planning.

 

After the above-described pilot run of the contest, UHI scaled up the project in the city of Aligarh. Three Happy Dampatti contests were held in Aligarh slums during June 2011, with 4 more contests scheduled in other Aligarh locations starting in September 2011.

 

Click here to listen to the campaign song and to access other materials, including videos.

Development Issues: 

Family Planning.

Key Points: 

JHUCCP estimates that over 210,000 people were reached through the contests directly and an additional million people were reached through related mass media.

 

The UHI, a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded 5-year endeavour, works to promote family planning in India and 3 other countries by increasing uptake of birth control and delaying and spacing methods and by promoting modern methods of contraception through the use of role models, mobile health applications, and entertainment education.

Contact Information: 
See video
Source: 

JHUCCP website, October 24 2011.

Democracia Activa - Peru (DAP)

Democracia Activa

The Democracia Activa - Peru programme (DAP), with technical input from C-Change, applies social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) principles to increase Peruvians' trust and comfort in democratic participation. DAP works with local partners to implement a targeted communication campaign that combines creative messaging, social mobilisation, and electronic networking to increase citizen participation in democratic processes and instil trust in democratic systems and institutions.

Communication Strategies: 

Prior to local/regional and national elections in 2010-11, the programme worked to focus voters' attention on key policy issues by disseminating information on local, regional, and national issues. DAP helped the Government of Peru design its Voto Informado (Informed Vote) campaign which, as of March 2011, was supported by: Twitter, Facebook, RSS feeds, and YouTube. To strengthen its social mobilisation and web-based efforts, DAP launched media interventions - Se Buscan Peruanos que no se Dejen Mecer (Wanted: Peruvians Who Don’t Give Up) and Agua que Hace Decir la Verdad (Water that Makes You Tell the Truth) - through a variety of channels (print materials, online videos, radio spots, and a web platform) to generate enthusiasm to focus on the primary objective of increased democratic participation. DAP also launched an automated phone system that allows callers to compare candidates.

 

One of DAP's strategies is in-person events that use an entertainment-education strategy. From March 24 to April 3 2011, DAP was part of a citizen fair initiative in Junin, Peru, the goal of which was to encourage citizens, especially youth, to cast informed votes in the April 11 national election and hold politicians accountable. Activities included: seminars on democracy and elections; live televised debates by congressional candidates; and information kiosks in plazas, university campuses, and other busy locations. With assistance from local implementing partners, citizen fairs were held, where hundreds received information in the course of enjoying games and other entertainment. According to organisers, "[i]nformation and excitement spread at a musical festival in Arequipa, parades in Ayacucho and Junín, cultural festivals in Cusco and Junín, and a democracy party in San Martín."

 

The DAP website invites citizens to ask questions, get involved, connect with each other, and spread the word about democracy in their communities through an engaging online platform. Through the website, forums, and a blog, the online platform is designed to help DAP build a nationwide network of advocates and representatives that carry the programme's messages throughout the country.

Development Issues: 

Democracy and Governance.

Partner Text: 

C-Change, FHI360.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Email from Sarah Meyanathan to The Communication Initiative on September 9 2011; and C-Change website, July 31 2012.

NetWorks

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The NetWorks programme, running from 2009 to 2014, is working to prevent malaria in Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda by increasing access to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and promoting consistent use.

Communication Strategies: 

Key components of the NetWorks programme include an initial analysis of the country context, stakeholder coordination, policy refinement, strengthened distribution networks, demand creation and promotion, and monitoring and evaluation. These components are designed to mutually reinforce each other and create a sustainable system for ensuring increased access and use of LLINs at the household level. Strategies differ between countries, but overall there are three key strategic programme areas:

Net Distribution

According to Networks, the programme strongly supports a mixed-methods approach to LLIN distribution, dependent on local circumstances and the country context. A strategy may include a combination of mass distribution to scale up rapidly to universal coverage coupled with a continuous distribution system to sustain high coverage. In most cases, a mix of public sector distribution via health facilities for pregnant women and young children, combined with some form of civil society partnership for increased community-wide access is preferred for long-term sustained access. NetWorks is helping to identify clear roles for public and non-public sector partners such as the private sector and faith-based organisations (FBOs). NetWorks partners provide training where needed to break bottlenecks, strengthen supply chains and community reporting mechanisms for improved management monitoring, and identify subsidy opportunities for expanded private sector roles where appropriate.

Behaviour Change Communication (BCC)

NetWorks is working to strengthen demand creation using behaviour change communication to close the gap between ownership and use. This includes producing and disseminating mass media messages on LLIN use. For example, in Senegal, NetWorks is leading BCC activities for the universal coverage distribution; training and providing job aids to UC volunteers; producing and disseminating radio and television spots on LLIN use; and developing a net care and repair toolkit. This includes using community radio and local celebrities as a central medium for communicating messages. NetWorks is also conducting research on the impact of BCC and BCC programmes in the key countries, as well as facilitating consultations. In February 2011, NetWorks facilitated an expert consultation meeting for Roll Back Malaria to examine ways that the malaria BCC community can ensure high quality BCC activities are well-described in countries' global fund applications, documented in a brief note on the impact and contribution of BCC to malaria control with best practices for developing strategic BCC and a set of sample indicators.

Research, Policy, and Advocacy

NetWorks is establishing a regular process of evaluating results and implementation strategies to feed new information into decision-making via regular review process, coordinated dissemination of results, and use of results in advocacy. According to Networks, national decision-makers need credible information and a supportive advocacy environment in order to establish policies for effective distribution and use. For example, the NetWorks project has collaborated on the design and implementation of mass and continuous distribution systems, and with the National Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria on post-campaign evaluations that build the evidence base around integrated and stand-alone campaigns. In Tanzania, NetWorks is conducting formative research in Kagera and Zanzibar on messaging to encourage community members to use nets in the context of reduced malaria transmission settings.

The NetWorks website provides updates about the programme, as well as materials for download.

Development Issues: 

Malaria

Key Points: 

In Senegal, The NetWorks project, in partnership with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), PMI and other partners, has successfully achieved Universal Coverage in six regions of Senegal. A total of 1,362,141 nets were distributed between June 2010 and April 2011. Mass distribution will continue in two additional regions, Diourbel and Fatick, between April and June 2011, delivering 1,360,000 nets. The next phases will continue until every household at risk in Senegal has a net to cover every sleeping space.

Partner Text: 

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs (JHUCCP), Malaria Consortium, Catholic Relief Services, Mennonite Economic Development Association (MEDA), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), International Procurement Agency (IPA), and the United States Agency for International Development

Source: 

NetWorks website and JHUCCP website on September 20 2011.

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