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Community Information Boards (CIB)

In 2007, the Government of Nigeria with support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), developed the concept of a Community Information Board (CIB). The board is designed to capture basic social and development data that communities could use to track the health and well-being of their children, as well as drive community dialogues, collective decision-making, and communal action to realise the rights of women and children.

Communication Strategies: 

The Community Information Board is designed to capture basic social and development data in the community for tracking the situation of children and women, and to provide the focus for community and peer-group dialogues, local theatre and house-to-house counselling that lead to concrete actions that improve services for and the rights status of children, women, and families. As a community tool, it requires the participation of every segment and group in all stages of its use. The principal moderators of the Board are the traditional leader, the community or village development committee, and the recorder. The audience is the entire community — women, youths, children and men. The board is intended to complement existing community engagement processes such as community dialogues and community theatre.

The boards track 16 indicators on a quarterly basis. These indicators track births and child mortality, immunisations, child health and development, school enrolment, use of bed nets, water and sanitation, and maternal health. Each indicator is recorded on the information board, which is placed in a prominent position within villages, and updated quarterly by a recorder who is generally an assigned member of the community development association. The recorders, several of whom are women, use information from daily and weekly entries in community information notebooks to update the boards. Each recorder has a community information notebook or register into which s/he enters information on each indicator when it is collected. At the end of each quarter the information in the notebook is collated and entered on the Community Information Board.

Information is kept on the CIB for one year when it is ‘archived’ or held in a secure place within the community. Recording of information then begins afresh on the wiped board at the start of another year. The traditional leader and the village/community development committee are principally responsible for maintaining the CIBs and ensuring the involvement of all sections of the community. All groups have a chance to participate in responding to issues that arise from a common analysis of the implications of information on the board and in agreeing ways to address problems and move forward within the community. Participation takes place through one or more local level communication forums such as community and peer group dialogues, local theatre, and home counselling.

According to UNICEF, the CIBs were developed through a process of pre-testing with community leaders and different groups (including women and youth) until it was deemed user-friendly. Boards were then produced for 222 focus communities. Guidelines for use of the boards and a training guide were developed with community leaders and resource persons, with technical support from government officials, academics, and UNICEF staff.

Using a two-tier ‘cascade’ process, UNICEF organised training for recorders and members of the community development committees. First, university lecturers from across the country, together with staff from UNICEF’s non-governmental organisation (NGO) partners, participated in national level training of trainers (TOT) workshops. Following that, training of trainers (TOT) participants, equipped with new levels of confidence, knowledge, and skills, returned home to train local people on the selected indicators. UNICEF also helped to develop a Training Guide to be used primarily by NGOs as a resource for training and monitoring processes within communities.

Organisers say that by the end of 2008, 25 NGOs, government experts, and academics had trained 291 community focal persons and over 3000 members of community development committees on how to consolidate data from local records, update the boards, provide feedback to community members, and moderate community dialogue sessions. In addition, 138 communities in 21 states had updated their Community Information Boards and were using them to monitor indicators of child survival and development in their communities.

Development Issues: 

Children, Women, Health, Maternal Health, Immunisation, Malaria

Key Points: 

According to organisers, the boards have been successfully adopted in over 60% of the focus communities. Evidence suggests that analysis and discussion of information on the boards contributes to:

  • increasing the focus on the day-to-day well-being of women and children, and recognition of their rights;
  • stimulating communities to discuss the best way of addressing issues on the board;
  • encouraging communities to track information on their own development;
  • creating a common understanding of development problems; and
  • acting as a catalyst for local assessment, planning, and implementation of action plans, thereby building local ownership of services and programmes.

According to UNICEF, the Boards have exposed communities to an organised and standard method of data collection in the community, and communities have learned to interpret data and understand their usefulness. The Boards have also forged a link between data, dialogue, and knowledge of key household practices. Some community leaders confessed that they had never taken the key household practices or record-keeping seriously and were only just beginning to put these into practice now that they have a better understanding of their benefits. In addition, the process has enabled communities to appreciate the need to initiate, own and control the process of development in their localities rather than yielding to the dominant culture of relying on interventions from outside.

The following are some of the lessons learned from the project:

  • Maintaining communities’ interest in dialoguing on issues related to the well being of children and their families requires that those issues are kept firmly at the forefront of public attention and on the community’s own development agenda.
  • The leadership and support provided by traditional leaders and community development committees is vital to the successful use of the Community Information Boards.
  • Using women as Recorders increased openness, encouraged greater cooperation amongst households, and increased their willingness to provide data to the Board.
  • Providing communities with incentives for maintaining CIBs to a high standard, such as letters of commendation, should be considered.

UNICEF is planning to scale up the initiative. They say that over 80% of all communities in the country could be reached by 2012 if the capacity of staff from universities with outreach programmes and national and local NGOs is developed.

Partner Text: 

UNICEF, Nigerian Ministry of Information, Department of Information

Source: 

UNICEF website on October 29 2010.

Strengthening Community and Health Systems for Quality PMTCT: Applications in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Ethiopia

pmtcsystems.jpg
May 1, 2013
Affiliation: 

Pathfinder

This 12-page report by Pathfinder discusses experiences as well as recommendations based on programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. According to the report, barriers to implementing programmes for PMTCT in resource-limited settings fall into common biomedical, behavioral, and structural categories.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Pathfinder website on July 7 2013.

My Gorilla - My Community

The My Gorilla – My Community project is working to develop and implement a comprehensive communications for behaviour change programme to cultivate a community more sympathetic to science-based conservation efforts, and creating a favourable environment for endangered Cross River gorillas in order to avoid extinction. The project is working with local partners to produce a radio drama, host post-broadcast discussions, along with other mentoring and awareness raising activities.

Communication Strategies: 

According to PCI Media Impact, Cross River gorillas have little chance of long-term conservation success without local community protection and support, and the only way to win that support is through communications messaging, and supporting campaigns that educate and change the attitudes and behaviours of populations who are in direct contact with these gorillas.

The overall objectives for My Gorilla – My Community are to:

  • develop the capacity of WCS and local organisations in Nigeria and Cameroon to better use communications to effectively enhance community protection activities and motivate long-term social change in favour of Cross River gorillas;
  • build a community of coalitions of well-informed constituents who understand and support protection of the Cross River gorilla; and
  • change attitudes and behaviours related to Cross River gorillas and heighten awareness of the threats to their long-term survival.

Through training and mentorship, the project is equipping Wildlife Conservation Society in Nigeria and Cameroon with the tools to use social marketing approaches to educate, shape attitudes, and catalyze sustainable behaviour change. Since launching the project, Media Impact has developed a cross border coalition with WCS-Nigeria, WCS – Cameroon, local and national stakeholders, scientists, and broadcast teams that are spearheading awareness-building the communication for development work. Together, the team identified and trained local scriptwriters and held focus groups to uncover culturally relevant stories that writers drew upon for a radio drama.

The radio drama will begin airing in July 2013, and coalition broadcast partners will hold radio call-in shows following every broadcast, providing listeners with a forum to share opinions and lessons learned. The radio drama, called Linda’s Joint, centres on a remote village in the highlands along the Nigeria and Cameroon border, torn apart over plans to pull down the community forest to build a palm plantation. In the drama, hunters become farmers; village leaders fall under the spells of love, money, power, and palm wine; and a little girl’s determination to save a baby gorilla from a hunter transforms the King of Hunters into a Gorilla Guardian. Corruption, arrests, betrayal, and violence befall the village as it comes to grips with the dangers of illicit hunting and deforestation and learns how to survive without destroying its natural resources.

Development Issues: 

Environment

Key Points: 

According to My Gorilla - My Community, hunting and habitat loss are the gorillas biggest barriers to survival: the number of mature Cross River gorillas is estimated at fewer than 200, and the total population is estimated at fewer than 300. This primate is the most endangered African ape and among the world's 25 most endangered primate species.

Partner Text: 

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), PCI Media Impact, United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Cross River State Broadcasting Corporation

Contact Information: 
Source: 

PCI Media Impact on May 24 2013.

GenARDIS 2002 - 2010: Small Grants that Made Big Changes for Women in Agriculture

Author: 
Jennifer Radloff
Helen Hambly Odame
Sonia Jorge
September 1, 2010
Affiliation: 

Association for Progressive Communications (Radloff), University of Guelph (Hambly Odame)

This document discusses the work of the Gender, Agriculture and Rural Development in the Information Society (GenARDIS) small grants fund, which was initiated in 2002 to support work on gender-related issues in information and communications technologies (ICTs) for the African, Caribbean, and Pacific regions. The small grants fund was disbursed to diverse projects in order to counter barriers to women living in rural areas. This document records the process and results, and is intended to contribute to more gender-aware ICT policy advocacy.

Source: 

Association for Progressive Communications (APC) website, February 16 2011 and March 30 2012.

http://www.comminit.com/files/Genardis_EN_cover.feature.jpg

Health Communication: Polio Lessons

Subtitle: 
Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, Volume 15, Supplement 1
May 7, 2010

According to the articles in this Journal of Health Communication supplement, the polio eradication experience provides a rich source of health communication knowledge. And yet, it is one that remains relatively unexamined. The papers in this supplement take a small step towards drawing out some of the lessons and looking at what these experiences have to say to the wider field of health communication. They focus on a series of tensions and the manner in which the polio programme has dealt with them.

Tensions like:

  • Short-term expectations / long-term change processes
  • http://www.comminit.com/files/JOHCPolioSuppCover.gif

    Understanding Community-Based Information Systems in the Millennium Villages

    December 1, 2009

    This website from newmediadev2009 was a project of a 2009 research seminar developed and taught by Professor Anne Nelson at Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) in New York, the United States (US).

    Contact Information: 
    Source: 

    Email from Anne Nelson to The Communication Initiative on January 11 2010.

    http://www.comminit.com/files/pill.jpg

    Majalisar Mata Manoma

    Initiated in 2009, Majalisar Mata Manoma was a project that involved creating spaces for women farmers in the rural community of Gwagwada, Nigeria, to meet and engage with radio.

    Communication Strategies: 

    Prior to commencement of the project, ARDA carried out a baseline study to identify the needs of the beneficiaries and to draw out issues to be addressed by the radio programme. The baseline was also used to determine the appropriateness of local theatre as a development tool.

    According to ARDA, the participation of two key male figures - a community elder and a school teacher - helped curtail possible opposition from the spouses of participating women. In addition, previous preparation, including work using theatre for development with men and women in the community, helped the women's husbands accept their participation. However, mobilising the women was still a challenge, as their heavy daily workload made listener group activities a secondary priority.

    The project also addressed the issue of unequal workloads between women and men in the community. According to ADRA, the workload for young girls and women is disproportionately heavier than that of their male counterparts. An activity that requested participants to chart the daily diaries of the opposite sex helped build awareness around this problem for community members, while focus group discussions explored the significance of this issue. The theatre for development skits also portrayed this topic.

    Broadcast live, the 30-minute radio programmes included music, a talk-show with an expert guest, phone-ins, and inserts recorded by the listeners' club members. These inserts consisted of discussions, songs, and opinions. The women involved in the project provided a priority list of issues they wanted the radio programmes to address. To deal with these identified issues, the programme relied on scripts downloaded from the Farm Radio International website.

    As part of the project, the listeners' club was given a mobile phone to allow the women to engage with the radio programmes. According to the organisers, this strategy was necessary because women generally have less access to mobile technology due to gender inequalities in the community and lack of income. Members were trained to use the phone to make and receive calls and text messages. The women have also started using the phone to generate income for the club.

    To read more about the programme, visit the listeners' club blog.

    Development Issues: 

    Gender, Agriculture

    Key Points: 

    According to ARDA, the women in the club are increasingly willing and able to organise themselves with less effort on ARDA's part. They ask more questions about issues to be addressed on the programmes and are generally much more vocal in discussions. The club has also recently evolved into a formal association to be used as a vocational group, development group, or farmers' cooperative.

    Partner Text: 

    African Radio Drama Association (ARDA) and Gender and Agriculture in the Information Society (GenARDIS).

    See video
    Source: 

    GenARDIS website on March 10 2010; and "Rural Nigeria: Radio and Mobile Phones Change Women's Lives", on the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) website and listeners' club blog - both accessed on December 13 2010.

    Rural Internet Kiosks Project

    Rural Internet Kiosks (RIK) is a Kenyan-based organisation that manufactures and distributes movable, recyclable, cost-effective kiosks that operate with satellite connectivity and solar energy to ena

    Communication Strategies: 

    Rural Internet Kiosks produces kiosks that are independent, freestanding booths functioning on solar power and other forms of renewable energy. Each kiosk houses 3 energy-efficient personal computers. The kiosks are modelled on user-friendly software and hardware and are manufactured and assembled in a "knock-down" format, enabling them to be easily transported and set up in even very rugged regions.

    The kiosks have been designed to give access to all users, including children and the disabled. According to RIK, they are also working on ways to use portable USB pen screen readers and accessible websites, which will help the visually impaired access information. Screen readers could also help people who can understand, but not necessarily read, English.

    The kiosks are designed to promote entrepreneurship and electronic service delivery within rural and urban settings and, in turn, facilitate e-commerce, e-education, e-health, and e-governance. The organisers say that the kiosks have helped farmers obtain regular updates on weather patterns and produce prices, thereby expanding their revenue. Business start-ups have been able to exploit digital multimedia advertising. The internet kiosks are helping government agencies to create awareness concerning health and environment and reach out to local communities. Through the use of multimedia information outlets, communities can also access information about infectious diseases such as malaria, polio, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. The kiosks also create platforms for the promotion of tele-medicine, which is still in its infancy in most African countries.

    The kiosks use the open-source Ubuntu Linux operating system, as well as other open-source software. This virtualisation technology allows up to 10 uses to share a single personal computer (PC).

    Development Issues: 

    Information and Communication Technology, Economic Development, Agriculture.

    Key Points: 

    The RIK project was developed by Jitu Patani, also project manager at Rural Internet Kiosk, who has a vision of bridging the digital divide by providing the last mile access to rural or remote communities. RIK is working to help Africa move towards the Millennium Development Goal of Bridging the Digital Divide by year 2015.

    Partner Text: 

    Rural Internet Kiosks, InterSat, and Userful.

    See video
    Source: 

    eLearning Africa website on February 5 2010.

    Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI)

    The Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project is an endeavour to identify which interventions of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) are most effective and have the biggest impact.

    Communication Strategies: 

    MLE's communication strategy is built on collaboration with the country consortia (CCs) that are implementing URHI programmes in Uttar Pradesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. According to organisers, this collaboration is essential in ensuring that the country programme activities are rigorously monitored and evaluated, that high-quality data are collected, and that the results of the impact analysis are used by the country consortia (CCs) to inform programme activities as well as disseminated nationally, regionally, and globally in an effort to promote and scale-up promising FP/RH practices.

    The MLE project has developed a standard set of instruments and indicators for use at the individual, household, and facility levels, which will be reviewed by each CC and adapted to the local context. This core set of indicators is designed to allow for cross-country comparative analysis, while the adaptation provides opportunities to examine specific issues of interest for each country.

    Through a quasi-experimental study design, MLE will evaluate the URHI interventions, which are developed around the following objectives:

    • To develop cost-effective interventions for integrating quality FP with maternal and child health services;
    • To improve the quality of FP services for the urban economically poor with emphasis on high-volume clinical settings;
    • To test innovative private-sector approaches to increase access to and use of FP by the urban economically poor;
    • To develop interventions for creating demand for and sustaining use of contraceptives; and
    • To increase funding and financial mechanisms and a supportive policy environment for ensuring success to FP supplies and services for the urban economically poor.

    From January through December 2009, MLE in partnership with the CC in India: created an in-country advisory board; conducted a baseline key stakeholder interviews; initiated a capacity assessment with the in-country research partner; trained data collection research assistants; pretested the baseline survey instruments; and began data collection. The baseline data collection activities are, as of January 2010, underway in India.

    In an effort to build in-country capacity to undertake rigorous measurement and evaluation of population, FP, and integrated reproductive health programmes, MLE offered a six-hour M&E "101" Short Course for Beginners as part of the International Conference on Urban Health in October 2009. The course consisted of two sessions and covered: an introduction to M&E; uses of data; conceptual frameworks and logic models; development of indicators; data sources; and evaluation research, including descriptions of study designs and how to select the best design for a specific study.

    From MLE's perspective, to revitalise global interest and funding for a new era in the promotion of FP/RH services, robust evidence-based strategies must demonstrate research-driven best practices, and this research must be disseminated widely. Successful local, national, regional, and global dissemination and use of the programme results depend on many factors, including the collaborative relationships among the MLE project and the CCs and the engagement of key stakeholders to improve policymaking and funding allocations at all levels. The MLE website is one way in which organisers are building those relationships and sharing information.

    A variety of resources are offered on the website, such as links to presentations given by MLE partners and colleagues at various venues that highlight findings from the MLE project, its evaluation of the URHI, and other project-related insights and lessons learned, including a series of 6 stories written to personalise the RH barriers and challenges that women and men face living in urban slums. One may also find upcoming regional and global events that MLE partners and others from the broader urban RH community have submitted to the website. Similarly, as part of its larger aim of raising awareness of the importance for M&E (beyond URHI) and building M&E capacity, one page on the site offers recommended tools and resources to assist in incorporating M&E into public health programmes.

    Development Issues: 

    Reproductive Health, Population, Maternal and Child Health.

    Key Points: 

    According to the United Nations, urban populations in Asia and Africa are expected to double between 2000 and 2030.(1) One in three urban residents lives in slums,(2) often beyond the reach of health services that address maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, including FP. CC interventions are developed around the understanding that the unique nature of urban poverty requires inclusive interventions and strategies that transform the challenges of urban slums into opportunities. The MLE project will determine if the country consortia has indeed managed to expand the reach and quality of integrated FP programmes and maternal and child health services in their respective urban project cities in order to reduce maternal and infant mortality and improve the lives of economically poor urban residents.

    It has been argued that too few impact evaluations have been carried out; and, when they have, they frequently do not use rigorous methods, resulting in information that is misleading or of little use.(3) A dearth of rigorous impact evaluation studies leave decisionmakers with good intentions and ideas but little real evidence of how to spend scarce resources. The MLE project is based on the conviction that better coordination of impact evaluations across countries and institutions around common thematic areas can improve the ability to generalise findings.

     

     

    (1) United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision (New York: United Nations Population Division, 2008).
    (2) United Nations, The State of World Population 1996 (New York: United Nations Population Division).
    (3) William D. Savedoff, Ruth Levine, and Nancy Birdsall. (2006). When Will We Ever Learn? Improving Lives through Impact Evaluation. Report of the Evaluation Gap Working Group. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

    Partner Text: 

    University of North Carolina's Carolina Population Center, in collaboration with Africa Population and Health Research Center, International Center for Research on Women, and Population Reference Bureau.

    Source: 

    MLE website, January 14 2010.

    Community Participation for Action in the Social Sector (COMPASS) Project

    Funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Community Participation for Action in the Social Sector Project (COMPASS) aims to reach approximately 23 million Nigerians in 51 Local Government Areas (LGAs) through community-led health and education initiatives.

    Communication Strategies: 

    COMPASS draws on a number of communication strategies, as illustrated through the examples below. The main goal is to promote a sense of ownership whereby community members take responsibility for their own community's development.

    Improving quality of basic education: COMPASS has introduced a number of interventions aimed at improving students' skills in math and literacy and increasing primary school retention and girls' enrollment. Carried out in both public and Islamiyya (religious) schools in Kano, Nassarawa, and Lagos atates, activities focus on teacher performance, community support, and integration of health and education, and are designed to:

    • Promote the teaching of math and reading through Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI);
    • Train teachers in teaching methods that are girl-friendly and encourage student participation;
    • Empower Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) and community members to improve classrooms and school grounds to make them cleaner, safer, and more conducive to learning;
    • Strengthen parent-school relationships by providing PTAs with technical and financial support;
    • Promote and adopt school-based health and nutrition initiatives; and
    • Strengthen the teaching capacity of colleges of education and universities to improve the quality of education in primary schools.


    Promoting FP and quality RH: COMPASS works with local governments, health care providers, and communities to address safe motherhood, FP, postabortion care, HIV/AIDS, youth-friendly services (using culturally sensitive approaches), men's roles in RH (including men in RH discussions and encouraging their participation in decisions involving their partner's RH), and gender-based violence (or, GBV, emphasising community commitment to address GBV and working with health facility staff to recognise it as a health problem affecting women's RH outcomes).

    Improving child health and nutrition: By working with community-based and facility-based health providers and advocating for under-5 child health policies at national and state levels, COMPASS supports child survival activities in 37 LGAs in Kano, Lagos, and Nasarawa states. These interventions address the following components:

    • Malaria (e.g., training local Patent Medicine Vendors, advocating for the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and organising outreach events to educate communities);
    • Nutrition (e.g., promoting exclusive breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, and Vitamin A supplementation during National Immunisation Days (NIDs) organised by the Federal Ministry of Health);
    • Immunisation (e.g. providing programme assistance with routine and supplementary immunisation in national training and social mobilisation working groups and monitoring and supporting NID activities); and
    • Diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections, newborn care (e.g., strengthening the home-based skills of community health promoters through refresher trainings and promoting messages on healthy household practices).


    Mobilising communities: COMPASS seeks to create an environment in which all Nigerians are involved in learning, planning, and taking action to improve health and education in their communities. COMPASS uses 2 conceptual frameworks based on participatory problem solving approaches: 1) Community Action Cycle (CAC) - encourages community members to work together to identify priority problems in their communities, define and identify solutions, and take action to improve the situation. The process also includes reviewing progress made in order to adjust strategies and/or address new problems. 2) Partnership Defined Quality (PDQ) - involves service providers and community members working on specific quality issues at the health facility or school level. Through these processes, COMPASS has been mobilising community members to establish 2 key community-based structures to facilitate participation: quality improvement teams and community coalitions. For instance, through the CAC process, community coalitions develop action plans; COMPASS provides technical assistance and guides the community coalitions in identifying strategies for implementing their action plans.

    Contributing to polio eradication: COMPASS strengthens polio immunisation activities in the Federal Capital Territory and 10 other states through: micro-planning and operational preparedness (e.g., participating in advocacy meetings), supervision and monitoring systems (e.g. developing community maps), community and social mobilisation (e.g. exploring with communities and providers ways to recognise and build upon achievements), training, information collection and use, and rehabilitation of polio victims (e.g. helping them develop appropriate skills and knowledge for self-sufficiency and independence).

    Advocating for improved social services and creating, supporting, and publicising policies that lead to better health and education: COMPASS works at state, district, and community levels to strengthen capacity for legislative action, increase awareness of policies that have been enacted to address social issues, advocate for leadership action in response to challenges, and promote community participation in using and providing services. One example of a relevant activity is building the capacity of local media outlets to support dissemination of policies and advocate for improved services in their area of coverage.

    Building the capacity of Nigerian non-governmental organisations (NGOs): In an effort to enable NGOs to contribute to the development of their country and successfully oversee community-based interventions in education, child health, and RH, COMPASS provides the tools and technical assistance they need to successfully develop work plans, raise funds, manage resources, and implement activities.

    Forging alliances between the public and private sectors: COMPASS begins by sensitising organisations, businesses, and individuals on the needs of the community. Once challenges are identified, groups are encouraged to support COMPASS initiatives through cost-sharing efforts such as donating needed goods and services. COMPASS also conducts advocacy visits to corporate organisations, influential individuals, and members of market and transport unions to leverage additional resources.

    For further details on all these activities and strategies, as well as access to a variety of COMPASS materials (e.g., posters) and success stories, visit the COMPASS website.

    Development Issues: 

    Children, Education, Health, Reproductive Health, Gender.

    Partner Text: 

    USAID, Federal Government of Nigeria. The 9-partner COMPASS team includes: Pathfinder International, Management Sciences for Health, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Federation of Muslim Women's Associations of Nigeria (FOMWAN), Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Civil Society Action Coalition on Education For All (CSACEFA), Creative Associates International, Inc. (CAII), Adolescent Health Information Project (AHIP), Futures Group.

    Source: 

    COMPASS website, accessed January 13 2010.

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    This study on information and communication technologies (ICTs), such as mobile phones, computers, and the internet, examines the ways in which these tools can contribute to child-focused development goals. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Office of Research - Innocenti initiated the study in collaboration with the...

    "This report focuses on the ways in which youth in Cambodia access and use different types of media and explores media as a source of information for young people. It also looks at how media can have an impact on their levels of civic participation as well as their attitudes."

    This group of papers on the use of mobile phones in India for social and behaviour change is the product of research and a two-day multi-stakeholder consultation in May 2013 sponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Digital Empowerment Foundation (DEF), leading to the formation of the organisation Mobile Social &...

    "Today more than ever smallholders and rural communities require access to information and communication to make their voices heard and change their lives for the better. Communication for Development [ComDev] facilitates dialogue and collaborative action, combining participatory methods with communication tools ranging from community media...

    "[W]hile technology has the potential to amplify citizens' voices, it must be accompanied by clear political goals and other factors to increase their clout."

    Drawing upon case studies from 9 programmes around the world and a citizen participation theory of change, this case study from the United States (US)-based National...

    "Deep concerns have been expressed as policies and practices that exploit the vulnerability of digital communications technologies to electronic surveillance and interception in countries across the globe have been exposed."

    From United Methodist Communications (UMCom), this discussion paper explores the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for economic and social development. It captures "best practice" in the use of mobile phones and other low-cost communications technologies through a series of interviews with 8 experts and...

    "This report shows how, on a daily basis, eHealth innovations are improving access to care and assisting women to take control of their own health...[T]hrough the use of ICTs, health-care professionals and the women and children they care for, are better able to share important health information as well as communicate amongst themselves...

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    Evaluations

    "[W]hile technology has the potential to amplify citizens' voices, it must be accompanied by clear political goals and other factors to increase their clout."

    Drawing upon case studies from 9 programmes around the world and a citizen participation theory of change, this case study from the United States (US)-based National...

    With the goal of providing a foundation for further investigation into the use of mobile health tools to support the performance and accountability of front-line health workers (FLHWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), this mHealth Alliance report outlines research that involved a 3-pronged approach:

    "BBC Media Action's qualitative research explored the maternal and child health information that is available and needed [in Afghanistan], and analysed which people in households and the community have significant influence over pregnant women."

    This research summary describes BBC Media Action's scoping study of the potential of maternal...

    "Last month there was a village meeting with over 20 participants including villagers, NGO representatives, the village chief and youth... I expressed my opinion about the [problem of] clean water and diarrhoea... then I dialled the m-Loy9 code and we listened about this problem." m-Loy9 trial participant

    For the monitoring of coverage in supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) carried out as part of the effort to eradicate polio in Pakistan (and, thus, globally), "automated systems based on short message service (SMS) texts appear to be an attractive and relatively inexpensive option." This is the conclusion of research conducted by Aga...

    International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)

    "Technologies are not only critical components in today’s workforce, but also can complement and accelerate student learning....Since its launch in 2000, the [Intel® Teach] professional development program has equipped more than 10 million primary and secondary school teachers with skills to integrate technologies and project-based teaching...

    @UNICEF

    "The integration of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to the Communication for Development (C4D) toolbox offers an additional means for challenging unequal power relations and increasing participation of marginalized girls in social transformation."

    BBC Media Action

    "Working in collaboration, students from the London School of Economics (LSE) Master of Public Administration (MPA) programme and BBC Media Action examined the value that social media brings to governance programming aimed at influencing engagement and civic participation."

    These international standards [PDF] for public relations (PR) and social media measurement (SMM) may be of interest to the non-profit community. They emerge from an international, collaborative...

    "Today, little data exist on the effectiveness of mobile games as channels for social and behavior change communication - and in particular on their effectiveness in addressing health issues in developing countries."

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    Experiences

    From the global human rights organisation Breakthrough, this information and communication technology (ICT) campaign asks people around the world to share their selfie (a self-portrait photograph, typically taken with a hand-held digital camera or camera phone often shared on social networking services) as part of this effort to bring home to...

    "[D]igitally literate women can bring about a lot of change in culture, thinking and social welfare."

    Through collaboration between Google and the Digital Empowerment Foundation (DEF), amongst other partners (see below),  with training through Community Information Resource Center (CIRC) of women, adolescent girls, and "dropout"...

    "Child health records help ensure every child receives the vaccines they need to live a healthy and productive life. However, many health records are lost or destroyed, not accurately maintained, or are simply too confusing to read."

    Produced by Internews Humanitarian Information Service in South Sudan, Boda Boda Talk Talk (BBTT) is a recorded audio service which seeks to provide life-saving and life-enhancing information to people displaced by the conflict at two of the United Nations Missions in Sudan South (UNMISS) Protection of Civilians sites in Juba. The BBTT...

    "The open data movement holds out the promise of improving transparency, accountability, citizen participation and economic opportunity across developing countries...Nevertheless, it is not yet clear if open data initiatives are truly delivering on their promises."

    "What tools, campaigns or services might we design to support habit changes that stick?"

    This is one question posed on OpenIDEO, an online platform launched in July 2010 in an effort to gather and connect thinkers around the world who want to share and implement creative ideas for social good....

    "Cambodian government information technology policy has encouraged the use of open source programs and the uncensored transmission of information, resulting in an energetic IT community that has produced Khmer Unicode and indigenized software. ODC continues this tradition."

    "The mapping tool should not be something that journalists should be afraid of, it is just a matter of being resourceful to know free, good apps, combined with imagination on how to use these tools to tell the story." - from a "Flag it!" participant

    The Telecentre Women: Digital Literacy Campaign is a global initiative to help empower disadvantaged and underserved community women with knowledge of information and communication technology (ICT), entrepreneurship and employable digital skills, opportunities for higher schooling, and membership in a supportive global digital community.

    ...

    CGNet Swara is a voice-based portal, freely accessible via mobile phone, that allows people in India to report and listen to stories of local interest. Reported stories are moderated by journalists and become available for playback online as well as over the phone. The cell-phone-based social media networking system operates inside sensitive...

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    Materials

    "Theories are often used to guide the design of messaging content aimed at increasing demand for health services and commodities. However, it not always the case that theories are used to guide the selection of the media through which those messages are conveyed; especially in modern demand generation initiatives that leverage new...

    "Since the mobiles for development space is evolving rapidly, the handbook is intended to equip readers with a set of questions to ask when using or considering mobiles, rather than providing a prescription for how to use mobiles in a given country or sector."

    Helping Women Get Online (HWGO) is a website, YouTube video channel, and training project (see Related Summaries below) aimed to increase knowledge and access of Indian women to information and communication technology (ICT) usage through the internet and a telephone hotline.

    The website includes a step-by-step guide, covering, for...

    "Today more than ever smallholders and rural communities require access to information and communication to make their voices heard and change their lives for the better. Communication for Development [ComDev] facilitates dialogue and collaborative action, combining participatory methods with communication tools ranging from community media...

    This video explains the origin of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the year 2000 and the ways in which people are interacting to share opinions on the next set of post-2015 goals as the deadline for the first set, the MDGs, approaches.

    "MediCapt is a mobile application, under development by the Program on Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones at Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), to help clinicians more effectively collect, document, and preserve forensic medical evidence of sexual violence to support the local prosecution of these crimes."

    This article describes a suite of resources that provides implementation guidance for mHealth initiatives, particularly in less developed countries. The suite includes an "eLearning course, online guide, evidence database, and a High-Impact Practices brief, along with the mHealth Working Group and website."

    "Cambodian government information technology policy has encouraged the use of open source programs and the uncensored transmission of information, resulting in an energetic IT community that has produced Khmer Unicode and indigenized software. ODC continues this tradition."

    "Environmental stories are broad by their very nature and it's the job of a reporter to help readers pin down the often interconnected influences that drive environmental change. The growth of large, publicly available datasets about environmental topics has presented the media community with a new opportunity."

    What kind of apps are available in the Education category? What are some lessons learned from the 'edutainment' era? How do teachers use games in the classroom?"

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    Awards

    "The initiative comes in the wake of the disclosure of 'diversity' figures by major tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Yahoo and LinkedIn, which reveal that, across the board, the number of women in tech jobs is well under 20 per cent, with the percentage of women in leadership roles not much better - reflecting a global lack of...

    The Manthan Award was created to recognise best practices in the areas of e-content, creativity, innovation, and development in internet content in India. This specific competition is a regional award for eleven states of southwest India. The core objective of the Manthan Award process is "giving visibility to the already existing content and...

    "If you use digital technologies to create content addressing socially relevant issues, this could be your chance to bring your project to a stage of global recognition."

    Centre for Communication and Social Change Awards 2014

    The Centre for Communication and Social Change is looking for outstanding and innovative individuals and organisations using communication and information and communication technology (ICTs) in communities to create meaningful change and facilitate social, economic, and technological development. The Award exists to recognise 'unsung heroes'...

    Manthan South Asia & Asia Pacific Award

    The Digital Empowerment Foundation (DEF) and .ORG, in association with Vodafone, present the Manthan South Asia & Asia Pacific Awards, open to participants located in South Asia and Asia Pacific.

    The core objective of the Manthan Award process is: making visible the digital contents that already exist, thus demonstrating the richness...

    GSMA mWomen Design Challenge aims to redefine and meet the needs of resource-poor women by improving the smartphone user experience. Designers, programmers, and innovators of all kinds are invited to consider the user experience of resource- poor women and re-imagine the smartphone’s core user interface to be more intuitive and accessible....

    The Global Integrity Innovation

    TESTING 1 2 3 is Global Integrity's Innovation Fund set up to invest up to US$10 000 in each brand new idea that addresses the challenges of transparency and accountability .  Global Integrity is seeking proof of concepts that are high-risk/high-reward and can be tested in up to 6 months post-investment.

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    Radio

    "Theories are often used to guide the design of messaging content aimed at increasing demand for health services and commodities. However, it not always the case that theories are used to guide the selection of the media through which those messages are conveyed; especially in modern demand generation initiatives that leverage new...

    "This report focuses on the ways in which youth in Cambodia access and use different types of media and explores media as a source of information for young people. It also looks at how media can have an impact on their levels of civic participation as well as their attitudes."

    This group of papers on the use of mobile phones in India for social and behaviour change is the product of research and a two-day multi-stakeholder consultation in May 2013 sponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Digital Empowerment Foundation (DEF), leading to the formation of the organisation Mobile Social &...

    "[W]hile technology has the potential to amplify citizens' voices, it must be accompanied by clear political goals and other factors to increase their clout."

    Drawing upon case studies from 9 programmes around the world and a citizen participation theory of change, this case study from the United States (US)-based National...

    "Utilizing social media and user-generated content for post-conflict peacebuilding does not simply mean making a Facebook or Twitter account for your organization. Social media involves conversation, and listening as well."

    Nervious Siantombo

    Author: Nervious Siantombo, August 5 2014 - Citizen participation is a critical element in the development of Zambia’s agriculture sector, which is the mainstay of the majority of the country’s population.

    Produced by Internews Humanitarian Information Service in South Sudan, Boda Boda Talk Talk (BBTT) is a recorded audio service which seeks to provide life-saving and life-enhancing information to people displaced by the conflict at two of the United Nations Missions in Sudan South (UNMISS) Protection of Civilians sites in Juba. The BBTT...

    "The initiative comes in the wake of the disclosure of 'diversity' figures by major tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Yahoo and LinkedIn, which reveal that, across the board, the number of women in tech jobs is well under 20 per cent, with the percentage of women in leadership roles not much better - reflecting a global lack of...

    Elias Banda

    Author: Elias M. Banda, May 9 2014      The advancement in mobile phone technologies has brought about unlimited opportunities for seeking, storing and sharing of information.

    Ten years ago, mobile phones appeared to be a preserve for a select few, mostly urban based. But the number has been rapidly growing. According to...

    I am deeply dissatisfied with the current state of public discourse about the role of media in international development. It appears to be dominated by 'techno-utopian' narratives which celebrate the apparent capacity of the media to directly deliver 'positive' benefits to communities.

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    Television

    "Theories are often used to guide the design of messaging content aimed at increasing demand for health services and commodities. However, it not always the case that theories are used to guide the selection of the media through which those messages are conveyed; especially in modern demand generation initiatives that leverage new...

    "This report focuses on the ways in which youth in Cambodia access and use different types of media and explores media as a source of information for young people. It also looks at how media can have an impact on their levels of civic participation as well as their attitudes."

    "...[T]he media children use can have a profound impact - both positive and negative - on learning, social development, and behavior. The only way to maximize the positive impact of media on children is to have an accurate understanding of the role it plays in their lives: which platforms they are using, the activities or content they are...

    "The initiative comes in the wake of the disclosure of 'diversity' figures by major tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Yahoo and LinkedIn, which reveal that, across the board, the number of women in tech jobs is well under 20 per cent, with the percentage of women in leadership roles not much better - reflecting a global lack of...

    "BBC Media Action's qualitative research explored the maternal and child health information that is available and needed [in Afghanistan], and analysed which people in households and the community have significant influence over pregnant women."

    This research summary describes BBC Media Action's scoping study of the potential of maternal...

    I am deeply dissatisfied with the current state of public discourse about the role of media in international development. It appears to be dominated by 'techno-utopian' narratives which celebrate the apparent capacity of the media to directly deliver 'positive' benefits to communities.

    "Affording citizens with MIL competencies contributes to free, independent and pluralistic media and information systems, thereby improving the quality of information they provide. While free media is perhaps taken for granted in the western world, more than a third of the world's population lives in countries where media and other...

    The number of United Kingdom (UK) children who own a mobile phone is going down, as youngsters reject basic handsets and increasingly turn to tablet computers to access the internet. This is one of the findings shared in a report of communication trends published by Ofcom, the independent regulator and competition authority for the UK...

    Joshua Masinde

    Author Joshua Masinde, December 12 2013:       Information and communication technology has brought about a paradigm shift in agricultural practice by offering the sector a renaissance of some kind.

    The increasing digitisation of agriculture has however, raised a lot of questions, many of which touch on...

    Resource Media, a nonprofit public relations firm based in the United States (US) that develops and executes communications strategies for the environment and public health, offers an online toolbox containing practical guides, worksheets, and presentations on strategic communications. The offerings are divided into the following categories:...

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    News Media

    "This report focuses on the ways in which youth in Cambodia access and use different types of media and explores media as a source of information for young people. It also looks at how media can have an impact on their levels of civic participation as well as their attitudes."

    "Utilizing social media and user-generated content for post-conflict peacebuilding does not simply mean making a Facebook or Twitter account for your organization. Social media involves conversation, and listening as well."

    Produced by Internews Humanitarian Information Service in South Sudan, Boda Boda Talk Talk (BBTT) is a recorded audio service which seeks to provide life-saving and life-enhancing information to people displaced by the conflict at two of the United Nations Missions in Sudan South (UNMISS) Protection of Civilians sites in Juba. The BBTT...

    "BBC Media Action's qualitative research explored the maternal and child health information that is available and needed [in Afghanistan], and analysed which people in households and the community have significant influence over pregnant women."

    This research summary describes BBC Media Action's scoping study of the potential of maternal...

    The Manthan Award was created to recognise best practices in the areas of e-content, creativity, innovation, and development in internet content in India. This specific competition is a regional award for eleven states of southwest India. The core objective of the Manthan Award process is "giving visibility to the already existing content and...

    "This collaboration presents the opportunity to link citizen journalism, official elections monitoring, and traditional media coverage with a single platform that can provide a much more comprehensive picture of the election process than any of three could independently."

    I am deeply dissatisfied with the current state of public discourse about the role of media in international development. It appears to be dominated by 'techno-utopian' narratives which celebrate the apparent capacity of the media to directly deliver 'positive' benefits to communities.

    "The mapping tool should not be something that journalists should be afraid of, it is just a matter of being resourceful to know free, good apps, combined with imagination on how to use these tools to tell the story." - from a "Flag it!" participant

    "Environmental stories are broad by their very nature and it's the job of a reporter to help readers pin down the often interconnected influences that drive environmental change. The growth of large, publicly available datasets about environmental topics has presented the media community with a new opportunity."

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