Most Recent Knowledge Shared from the Network

September 21, 2017

ICT4D Research: Reflections on History and Future Agenda

"[T]o what extent are ICTs contributing to development, particularly that of the relatively poor members of society? How can we extend the benefits of ICTs more widely in society and mitigate the...

September 20, 2017

Voice or Chatter? Making ICTs Work for Transformative Engagement

"Digital choices for democracy can empower or disempower citizens; can present citizens with real alternatives for equality, thereby deepening democracy; or [can] prove costly for both individual...

September 18, 2017

Protecting Children on the Move in Asia through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Social Media

"In a region with more mobile phones than people,...digital growth in Southeast Asia presents opportunities for children on the move to make informed decisions prior to migration and could help to...

September 14, 2017

Barriers and Solutions in Using M4D: Connecting Directly to Citizens for Scalable Impact

"For a mobile engagement project to create real impact, affordable and scalable technology is a necessary starting point, but elements of culture, psychology and human design must be considered."...

September 13, 2017

DataWinners

Launched in January 2012, DataWinners is an online, do-it-yourself mobile data collection service for organisations in the developing world, designed by Human Network International (HNI). Using the...

September 12, 2017

Effectiveness of mHealth Interventions for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

"mHealth research projects are typically under-theorised, poorly specified and vaguely described. This creates challenges for effective evidence synthesis, risks unintended consequences that cannot...

September 8, 2017

Digital Tools and Improving Women's Safety and Access to Support Services

"The literature on (non-digital and digital) ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) and women and girls' empowerment is relatively large, but most studies focus on women's economic...

September 7, 2017

Digital Tools and Changing Behaviour in Relation to Violence against Women

What are the most effective tools developed for digital platforms (social media, mobile phone apps and websites) that have been successful in changing behaviour in relation to violence against women...

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India

Enfoque para el control de Aedes centrado en la comunidad en una zona periurbana en las islas Andaman y Nicobar utilizando témefos

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Date
Year: 
2009

La fiebre del chikungunya golpeó las islas de Andaman y Nicobar en India, en julio de 2006. Por lo que este estudio evaluó las herramientas de IEC (Información, Educación y Comunicación) que fueron desarrolladoas para difundir información sobre la situación de la epidemia. Se organizaron varias charlas para sensibilizar y motivar a la gente a darse cuenta del problema y para que participaran en la solución del mismo.  Se interevino la gestión ambiental a través de la reducción de fuentes y se realizaron campañas antilarvales utilizando témefos (larvacida) para combatir la infestación de Aedes con la ayuda de la comunidad. 

Methodologies: 

La evaluación se realizó en una localidad periurbana (Brookshabad), se llevó a cabo con la ayuda de voluntarios de la comunidad mediante la técnica de encuesta larvaria (SLS). Se analizó el índice del hogar, índice de contenedores y el índice de Breteau el cual refleja la prevalencia de infestación, entre otros niveles relativos que fueron estimados. 

Resultados: 

Un total de 533 contenedores de agua fueron analizados para encontrar las larvas de Aedes, tanto en el interior y como al aire libre de 104 locales. De estos, se encontraron 109 contenedores que albergaban la cría de larvas. En este análisis, el índice de Breteau encontrado fue de 104,8%, con Aedes Aegypti predominando seguido por Aedes albopictus.  Estos recipientes que contenían agua fueron objeto de aplicación de Temefos por los voluntarios de la comunidad, luego de cuarenta rondas de aplicaciones de Temefos el número de contenedores que soporta la reproducción de Aedes aegypti se redujo significativamente el plazo de 1 mes. Como resultado, los índices de Breteau y del Hogar se redujeron de 104,8% a 2,7% y 44,23% a 2,6%, respectivamente. A partir de entonces, los índices se mantuvieron en el nivel cero hasta la finalización del estudio. 

Los autores indicaron que con base en estos resultados, se puede afirmar que la participación de la comunidad y la creación de redes con los residentes permite un enfoque centrado en la participación para combatir la infestación de Aedes aegypti. Como resultado de este enfoque, los índices larvarios se redujeron significativamente.  

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Impacto en el conocimiento y prácticas en la prevención del chikungunya en India

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Date
Year: 
2011

El Gobierno de India ha iniciado diferentes medidas de salud pública para controlar la epidemia del Chikunguya, incluyendo acitividades intensas de IEC y Comunicación para el cambio de comportamiento a través de medios impresos, electrónicos, comunciación interpersonal, y colaboración con organizaciones de la la sociedad civil. Este estudio fue conducido en el distrito costero del estado de Karnataka en India, en el mes de julio de 2008, ya que esta zona estaba pasando en ese momento por una epidemia del virus. Los autores tomaron como objeto de estudio los pacientes que llegaron al departamento de medicina externa de tres centros clínicos del área rural.

Methodologies: 

Las estrategias principales a las que estuvieron expuestos los entrevistados fueron mensajes a través de medios digitales, grupos de auto ayuda, elementos de publicidad, colaboración intersectorial y comunicación interpersonal. Posteriormente, se condujeron entrevistas cara a cara con 150 pacientes afectados por chikungunya y un grupo control 3 veces más grande, con el objeto de estudiar el impacto y el conocimiento de las prácticas de prevención.

Knowledge Shifts: 

Los resultados mostraron que el grupo control que no fue afectado por el virus pero sí expuesto a la estrategia, tenía mayores conocimientos y mejores prácticas. En cuanto a saber cómo se transmite el virus todas las respuestas fueron significativas: transmisión por el mosquito (105 casos y 378 control <0.001), por mosquitos Aedes (30 casos y 162 grupo de control <0.001),  picadura durante el día (36 casos y 216 control <0.001).

Practices: 

En cuanto a los comportamientos, por ejemplo en el caso del cambio de recipientes de agua constantemente (casos 24 vy 252 control), en el uso de insecticidas (casos 84 y 297 control) y en el caso de usar ropa larga (casos 0 y 86 control).

Resultados: 

Este estudio reveló que el Gobierno de India ha sido exitoso en cierta medida al crear conciencia entre las personas debido a sus esfuerzos. Pero ese nivel de conciencia está influenciado por el número de años de formación académica y en los de mayor ingreso per cápita. Según los autores, dentro de las circunstancias actuales de la enfermedad, India necesita intensificar su campaña educativa con la comunidad, a parte de aplicar medidas de control estrictas y un programa de vigilancia de la enfermedad. 

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Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial

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Launched in 2002 by the nonprofit organisation Y.R. Gaitonde Center for AIDS Research and Education (Y.R.G. CARE), this 5-year research intervention sought to study alcohol consumption and risky sex among male patrons of wine shops in the city of Chennai, in South India. The initiative involved identifying, recruiting, and training peer outreach workers called Community Popular Opinion Leaders (CPOLs), who disseminated HIV prevention messages to their peers, delivering them as personal endorsements of risk-reduction and health-seeking behaviours.

Communication Strategies: 

This initiative is research-based. In 2000, two years before the project began, the research team conducted ethnographic research and pilot tests to inform project design, and the implementing team received training. After its launch, the project used the data to hone interventions to reach patrons from 100 Chennai wine shops as well as sex workers from nearby "cruising" venues (locations where sex workers solicit customers). The project recruited and surveyed 3,000 participants - wine shop patrons and sex workers - from 2002 to 2007, including a baseline and two rounds of cross-sectional surveys measuring sexual behaviour and alcohol use.

Y.R.G. CARE's CPOL behaviour change communication (BCC) approach centres around peer educators who communicate their own thoughts and experiences as they promote HIV prevention strategies to others. To build a team of peer educators, the project recruited wine shop patrons known to be trusted and respected by their peers to communicate messages about safer sexual behaviour through informal, yet structured, one-on-one conversations. CPOLs attended 5 weekly training sessions of 90 to 120 minutes each. The sessions focused on how to craft effective HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention messages, initiate conversations using these messages, discuss how excessive alcohol consumption affects individual and family health, and help others overcome barriers to safer behaviour. Between sessions, the CPOLs carried out such "homework" assignments as practicing informal conversations with peers using key messages. After the sessions were completed, the CPOL "graduates" received a certificate and a gift voucher for Rs 300 (about US$6), and were asked to invite two friends to attend a later session so they could also become CPOLs. Later, a smaller group of highly motivated CPOLs received training to become trainers themselves.

CPOL's delivered messages during informal conversations. The messages were embedded in "I statements" made by the CPOLs that conveyed a personal endorsement of the value of behaviour change based on the CPOL's own experience. Here is an example: "I used to drink and have sex all the time because I thought drinking increased my sexual stamina. But when I drink, I always forget to use a condom, because everything gets blurry. So now when I drink, I go home and sleep. When I wake up, I can have sex." The project also provided conversation "hooks", such as posters with project logos - a question mark in a circle - in wine shops. CPOLs often wore the logo as a badge to pique curiosity among other patrons and wine shop staff, encourage questions, and initiate conversations. Over time, project staff began to notice that the logo would occasionally appear on the walls of bars and wine shops that were not part of the intervention. Also, team members placed condom boxes in autorickshaw stands (autorickshaw drivers often drive clients to sex workers) and in shops frequented by wine shop patrons.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS.

Key Points: 

This intervention is based on the fact that alcohol consumption may impair judgment and reduce inhibition. Furthermore, drinking is also a social activity, where peer pressure might influence individual behaviour - resulting in taking risks, including sexual risks. A study of wine shop patrons in Chennai showed high rates of risky behaviours occurring simultaneously, including sex with a non-regular partner, multiple sexual partners, consumption of five or more drinks at one sitting, and the use of alcohol before sex (Sivaram et al. 2008). A comparative study of men from the general population and of wine shop patrons showed that the latter had higher rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Partner Text: 

Y.R.G. CARE, the Research Triangle Institute, and Johns Hopkins University, with funding by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health.

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Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP)

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Launched in 2002 by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, the Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP) involved targeted prevention interventions for key populations (KPs), defined as those at high risk for HIV infection and transmission, in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in India. Because of their central role in the Indian epidemic, female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), together with injection drug users (IDU) and people with HIV (PWH), were defined as KPs for the project.

Communication Strategies: 

FPP was based on a theory of change that involved ensuring an environment in which prevention was feasible, and adequate services (STI clinics, drop-in centres) and commodities (condoms, lubricants, STI treatment) for prevention were available for KPs. KP empowerment was believed to improve prevention worker access to the KP, as well as KP access to and utilisation of prevention services. The theory was that, in turn, risky behaviour and STI prevalence would decrease, and subsequently, there would be a reduction in HIV incidence among KPs and in the broader community. According to organisers, KPs were involved in programme planning, and dissemination was intended to increase community ownership of the programme and, thus, its sustainability after the FPP finished.

FPP is carried out by 14 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) at 26 sites in 9 districts across the Rayalseema and Telengana regions of AP. Project-operated STI clinics were set up at all sites, and the medical officers were trained in syndromic case management and basic AIDS care. The services FPP provides include STI services, behaviour change communication, condom programmes, community mobilisation, and enabling and structural interventions. In addition, there is an emphasis on social capital building, network and support formation, empowerment, violence reduction, referrals for HIV testing, and basic AIDS care services.

For instance, community, mobilisation, social capital building, and community-led structural interventions (CLSI) being carried out as part of FPP include: participatory site assessments; collectivisation, promoting mutual support, networks, and solidarity (social capital) among KPs and leadership training for KPs; KP-led enabling environment activities based on respect, recognition, and reliance (3-R approach); KP-led risk reduction skills building activities; capacity building of KPs to address structural determinants of inequality, marginalisation, and vulnerability (including violence reduction); collective mobilisation of KPs to influence and inform the policy environment through multi-tier advocacy and creation of a supportive environment; initiatives with gatekeepers to build support for risk reduction in KPs; provision of safe spaces for KPs to meet, bond, and work together; and strengthening NGO capacity to work with KPs.

To cite just a few concrete examples of specific interventions for community mobilisation - specifically, as part of the behaviour change communication component - developed by Alliance's NGO partners as part of FPP: capacity building for peer education and other outreach strategies; using KP-specific cultural- and gender-sensitive information, education, and communication (IEC) materials and strategies delivered through multiple channels, including folk arts and folk media; and promotion and skills building for negotiating safer sex and using condoms and lubricants.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS.

Key Points: 

India has an estimated 2.0 million to 3.1 million people living with HIV; it has the highest number of HIV-positive people in Asia and ranks third in the world.

Partner Text: 

Funding provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

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What Does Jammu & Kashmir Need?

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Forget what you’ve heard about Jammu & Kashmir, India's state with perpetual border disputes.

EROTICS

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"[M]issing in the debate is a clear comprehension and articulation of the critical role that an open and free internet plays in the exercise of sexual rights and sexual citizenship, particularly for marginalised sections of society, and of the impact of emerging threats, limitations and regulation on this ability."

Communication Strategies: 

EROTICS was created based on a perceived need for cross-country research involving diverse voices of end-users from different political, social, and civil contexts - sexual health and rights workers, parents, policymakers, advocates, and other key actors - and the different understandings of "harm" that shape their engagement with and experiences of these digital spaces. The idea of this participatory research is to understand the complexity of perceptions of "harmful content" and what that might mean for content regulation on the internet. The research also examined the value of the internet for diverse communities of users in the exercise of their sexual rights and expression.

The research, which was conducted in South Africa, India, Lebanon, Brazil, and the United States, focused on networks, communities, and groups working online in awareness-raising, advocacy, and service provision involving the advancement of sexual rights and sexual health and sexual education. Researchers identified two specific groups: young women and girls (one of the most visible named groups identified in content regulation interventions); and lesbian, bisexual, or queer women (one of the typically most invisible sections of society that face multiple forms of discrimination). When looking at sexual rights and their expression, they also explored online platforms like Facebook, Orkut, and online spaces of sexual expression and socialising, such as online chat rooms, "closed" and "open to public" mailing lists and online communities, blogs, and dating and matrimonial sites.

As part of the research process, EROTICS undertook the following activities:

  • explored the impact of regulation of internet content on human rights and fundamental freedoms (specifically related to sexuality rights) that is grounded in the lived experiences of affected groups;
  • promoted and encouraged rights-based policy formulation by creating opportunities and developing platforms for critical reflection on the impact of content regulation on sexuality, sexual health, and sexual rights and to act upon the evidence produced;
  • built a network of researchers, communication rights activists, and sexual rights advocates on the issues of content regulation, privacy and security, and freedom of expression and its relationship to sexuality, sexual health, and sexual rights;
  • supported current efforts to build understanding and common ground between the concerns of sexual rights groups and the communication rights movement in policy spaces shaping regulatory norms and mechanisms relating to content regulation, privacy, freedom of expression, and access to information in the online environment; and
  • helped build an advocacy campaign and network to promote and secure women's sexual rights in relation to content regulation, privacy, freedom of expression, and access to information in the context of emerging internet governance debates and practices.

The second phase of the project, which takes place from May 2012 to May 2014, saw the launch of an EROTICS website, which is part of the process of responding to the research findings by:

  • Building a network of internet and sexual rights advocates who are able to share expertise and collaboratively respond to internet content regulation ("If you're a scholar or an activist interested in the intersections of sexual rights and internet rights, join our global network by emailing us at erotics@apcwomen.org");
  • Strengthening the capacity of sexual rights, women's rights, and gender equality advocates to resist internet content regulation, through capacity building in online security, research, and knowledge sharing, as well as alliance building with internet rights advocates;
  • Developing platforms, processes, and partnerships to generate regular and sustained monitoring and analysis of the threats and impact of internet regulatory measures on the advancement of sexual rights, including an annual global monitoring survey that reports on different aspects of barriers, threats, and limitations faced by activists and organisations working on a broad range of sexual rights;
  • Developing internet governance frameworks that recognise sexual rights and gender equality as key components of a free and open internet to inform policy development and debates in the area, including research and development of potential accountability models for non-state actors in this area.
Development Issues: 

Women, Rights.

Key Points: 

EROTICS was motivated by the following: "What is 'harmful content' on the internet? The definition is contestable, subjective and open to a range of interpretations, and the majority of interventions to combat it are mostly concerned with obscenity and child pornography. Sexual rights workers are troubled by the growing role of conservative forces - supported by religious extremists - and their attempts to encourage new legislation that would treat all online sexual exchanges as sexual predation and all adult content on the internet as pornography. This protectionist approach overshadows other important aspects of the internet that directly impact on internet users' lives and their ability to access to vital information on sexuality, sexual health and sexual rights."

Partner Text: 

Support provided by the Ford Foundation.

Source: 

APC website, January 7 2011; email from Jac sm Kee to The Communication Initiative on October 21 2011; APCNews 205, March 17 2014; and EROTICS website, March 19 2014. Image credit: Paul Watson, used under the Creative Commons license

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Voices from the Ground

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From Panos London, this blog follows the lives of five people working and living in developing countries, tracking their experiences in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Communication Strategies: 

Voices from the Ground, December 1 2010 is an online platform for recording the challenges, frustrations, and successes of people affected first-hand by the impacts of the MDGs. Their experiences are recorded by Panos London local journalists in those countries who tell those experiences as first person. The bloggers' stories are told as they happen and feature people from around the world:

  • Northeast India: Takhelchangbam Ambravati (known as Ambra) is a grassroots volunteer with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) near Imphal, the capital of the northeastern state of Manipur. She visits local women to collect information about human rights violations, domestic violence, and trafficking.
  • Pakistan: Zubaida Noor is working with women in a small village in Khyber Putkunkwa, previously known as North-West Frontier Province, who lost their homes in the recent floods. Her NGO, the Noor Foundation, focuses on women's education, health, and emancipation.
  • Jamaica: Dr Tracy Evans-Gilbert is head of the paediatric HIV programme at the Cornwall Regional Hospital, Montego Bay's main public hospital. Part of her job is to trace HIV-infected children who are not receiving treatment and babies with unknown status born to HIV-infected women.
  • Mali: As a housewife in the village of Tamala in the south of Mali, Sali Samaké has to fetch water every day to do the cooking and washing for her family. She is also one of thousands of small farmers trained by the Malian government to monitor rainfall.
  • Brazil: Dagmar Rivieri Garroux, known as Tia Dag (Auntie Dag), runs Casa do Zezinho, a school in one of south Sao Paulo's favelas. By offering social, cultural, and artistic activities for children, Tia Dag and the teachers aim to prevent them from joining Sao Paulo's criminal gangs.
Development Issues: 

Children, Economic Development, Education, Gender Equity, Maternal Health, HIV/AIDS, Health, Environment.

Source: 

Email from Tia Jeewa to The Communication Initiative on October 15 2010; and Voices from the Ground blog, December 1 2010. Image credit: Sanjit Das / Panos Pictures

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Imagining the Future IV (ITFIV)

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This intercultural exchange involved theatre practitioners from the Theatrescience project in the United Kingdom (UK) co

Communication Strategies: 

This initiative drew on live performance - theatre - to spread awareness about scientific advances and scientific research in India on issues such as genetic modification, birth control, organ donation, pesticide pollution, HIV, and inherited diseases.

In the initial phases of the project, the company was invited to access all laboratories, lectures, and presentations, guided by their NCBS project partner, who indicated the research areas which he thought had the most potential to form the scientific bases for theatre pieces. Alongside their own visits to lectures and laboratories, the company invited scientists, researchers, and students to join initial discussions and early rehearsals to discuss how scientific ideas might be dramatically developed. The directors led theatre workshops, which focused on the creation of theatrical metaphors. Scientists also contributed, explaining to the group the neurological relationship between memory and affect, which was an effort to add to the group's understanding of how to make a story emotionally and dramatically effective.

What resulted from the wide-ranging discussions and 11 workshops with theatre writers, directors, performers, writers, and companies, and with science, technology, and arts students were plays titled Amol's Stories and The Clearing. Both shows were performed in the NCBS open-air amphitheatre on February 6 2009; an audience of 150 attended. On February 8 2009, both shows were again presented (after an evaluation session) in the Khincha Auditorium of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan cultural centre. Another audience of over 100 attended, this time made up of Bhavan members, students (some from Vidya Niketan School), and the general public. A long discussion was held after the performances concentrating on the process by which the plays had come about, the representation of Indian (as opposed to American/Western) attitudes to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Amol's Stories, and the range of invasive species covered in The Clearing.

Development Issues: 

Health.

Key Points: 

According to Theatrescience, the ethical, economic, and political debate about biomedical science is keenly felt on a day-to-day basis. Shifting from a Eurocentric perspective, Theatrescience felt a need to explore Indian ideas and to investigate the connections between culture and science on the subcontinent.

Theatrescience was formed in 2002 as a way to explore biomedical science issues through the medium of theatre. It engages audiences and participants in discussions of social, ethical, and political issues relating to biomedical science and develops drama inspired by these issues. It has been supported by the Wellcome Trust since its inception.

NCBS is an affiliate of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, involved in research in biological spectroscopy, nucleic acid biochemistry, cellular neurobiology, human and population genetics, cellular networks, and cell biology.

Partner Text: 

Funded by Wellcome Trust.

See video
Source: 

Theatrescience website, November 4 2010.

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Women & Mobile: A Global Opportunity: A Study on the Mobile Phone Gender Gap in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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Publication Date
February 1, 2010

This study from the GSMA Development Fund, the Cherie Blair Foundation, and Vital Wave Consulting analyses data, surveys, a market sizing model, and expert interviews to report on mobile phone use among women in low- and middle-income countries.

Source: 

Global Health Weekly Update, October 12 2010.

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Mobile Phone Networks Champion Social Change in the Third World

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Author: 
Ross Biddiscombe
Publication Date
June 18, 2010
Affiliation: 

The Guardian

According to this article from The Guardian: "Money transfer, healthcare, farming and education are all areas now covered in the developing world by rapidly spreading mobile phone networks."

Source: 

The Guardian, July 18 2010. Image source: Vodafone

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