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"National strategic frameworks or plans (NSPs) determine a country’s national response to HIV and AIDS, guiding allocation of funding, resources and human capacity and are now critical for Global Fund investments.  Many plans are not strategic, include limited situational analysis and do not identify the key drivers of the epidemic and the...

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

"The low level of knowledge on cervical cancer and HPV found in baseline formative research on the part of health workers and teachers,...let alone community members, prompted governments to provide detailed training to them to ensure that they would be able to answer questions from parents, girls, and other community members..."

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Sexuality Education and Lifeskills

"HIV programming for adolescents should focus on interventions of proven effectiveness and address underlying factors driving incidence and lack of effective treatment and care in this age group."

 whizzkidsoxfam.jpg

This document describes a case study done on behalf of Oxfam in order to describe the "social aspects" of the work of Africaid Whizzkids United (WKU). Africaid is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) that provides HIV prevention, treatment, and care and support services to adolescents, particularly those living with HIV, in the Edendale...

Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health

"This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS educational intervention on adolescents' knowledge about and perceptions of susceptibility and severity of HIV/AIDS. We also examined whether providing information about assertiveness skills led to an intention to delay initiation of sexual activity."

Adolescents' HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge in Nigeria

In this study, adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to HIV and AIDS were examined based upon their age, gender, and parents' educational status. Data from several parts of Nigeria point to sexual activity in unmarried adolescents of both sexes and show a progressively decreasing age of initiation. Evidence from Nigerian...

Secondary School Students

"School-based HIV/AIDS health education may be an effective way to prevent the spread of AIDS among adolescents."

Preventing HIV in U.S. Women and Girls: A Call for Social Action

According to author Cynthia Gómez, "The task of enabling most African-American and Latino women to remain uninfected with HIV goes well beyond how to use condoms, learning how to ask for condoms during sex through role-playing, or learning self-motivating statements such as 'I’m worth protecting from HIV.' Women who feel the need to please...

Equipping Educators to Address HIV and AIDS

"While the need to prioritize HIV and AIDS education for teachers is increasingly recognized, much more still needs to be done in terms of equipping teachers to address the epidemic."

This article presents a survey of the spectrum of educational initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa which are designed to equip educators to...

Image credit: itu.int website

This journal article shares findings of a United States (US) study to pilot-test "+CLICK", a web-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive youth. The theory-based application, developed for perinatally and behaviourally infected youth aged 13 to 24, provides tailored activities addressing attitudes, knowledge, skills, and self-...

Image credit: Samrakshak Samuha Nepal (SASANE)

This journal article is on school-based sex education in Nepal, conducted because, while "school-based sex education is an effective medium to convey health information and skills about preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies among adolescents, there is little research about the topic for much of the...

"Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) are common among young people. Yet there are few opportunities for youth to be exposed to interventions that address the key drivers of stigma and discrimination, namely lack of awareness of stigma and its harmful consequences, social judgment and fear of infection through...

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Social and Behaviour Change

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

alcohol.png

This 104-page report, produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) presents the results of a qualitative research study undertaken to examine the impact of alcohol consumption on sexual partnerships and the implications for HIV transmission. The report presents its findings on aspects including multiple...

Preventing HIV in U.S. Women and Girls: A Call for Social Action

According to author Cynthia Gómez, "The task of enabling most African-American and Latino women to remain uninfected with HIV goes well beyond how to use condoms, learning how to ask for condoms during sex through role-playing, or learning self-motivating statements such as 'I’m worth protecting from HIV.' Women who feel the need to please...

Young People/Testing in Tanzania

In this study, authors analysed data from two large nationally representative surveys conducted in Tanzania in 2003/2004 (4,710 respondents analysed) and 2007/2008 (6,691 analysed) to determine whether the behaviours (first sex, having more than one sexual partner in the last year, and unprotected last sex with a non-cohabiting partner)...

school_children.jpg

This journal article describes findings of a cluster randomised trial to asses a community-based, multi-component HIV and reproductive health intervention designed to change social norms for adolescents in rural Zimbabwe. The findings suggest that despite an impact on knowledge, on some attitudes, and on reported pregnancy, this intervention...

"Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) are common among young people. Yet there are few opportunities for youth to be exposed to interventions that address the key drivers of stigma and discrimination, namely lack of awareness of stigma and its harmful consequences, social judgment and fear of infection through...

Over one-third of the population in Egypt is between 10 and 29 years of age. According to this report, their needs for a safe and smooth transition to adulthood are particular to the requirements and challenges of their time. From the Population Council series Survey of Young People in Egypt: Fact Sheets, the report examines an Egyptian study...

marps.jpg

This 30-page publication shares reports from a series of studies undertaken among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Kenya between 2009 and 2011. According to the publication, the need for effective interventions among MARPs is increasingly recognised in Kenya’s national HIV response. Even though Kenya's HIV prevalence in the general...

African American GLBTQ Youth in the Face of HIV/AIDS

"This article focuses on the construction of homes and families within the ballroom community, a prominent feature of urban GLBTQ communities of color in cities across the United States.”

The FreeChild Project

"This paper examines a specific aspect of participatory action research [PAR] with youth, namely, the perceptions of the marginalized and at-risk youth participants who were reached through being involved in a youth-led project."

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Gender Based Violence

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

In this study, in order to evaluate the high rates of HIV infection among adolescent girls and to present evidence on what works globally to address the risk, researchers reviewed evidence on programming for adolescents from 150 studies and evaluations from 2001 to June 2013. [Footnotes are removed by the editor.]

This research based in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa.

Preventing HIV in U.S. Women and Girls: A Call for Social Action

According to author Cynthia Gómez, "The task of enabling most African-American and Latino women to remain uninfected with HIV goes well beyond how to use condoms, learning how to ask for condoms during sex through role-playing, or learning self-motivating statements such as 'I’m worth protecting from HIV.' Women who feel the need to please...

Early Sexual Debut a Risk Factor for HIV Infection Among Women

"In many sub-Saharan African countries, there are disturbingly high levels of HIV infection among young women - with the discrepancies in ratios of HIV infection between 16- and 24-year-old girls compared with boys being eightfold higher in some settings."

This paper explores the representations of "positive" cross-gender relations, as well as associated constructs, in the Soul Buddyz edutainment initiative, which is primarily geared towards 8-12 year-olds, and intended to provide "positive" role models for girls and boys.

"Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability."

This report presents findings from a mapping initiative by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) that aimed to capture how faith-based organisations (FBOs) respond to violence against women (VAW) and girls in the Asia-Pacific region. As a collaborative initiative between UNFPA and the Asia-Pacific Women Faith and Development Alliance (AP-...

Taxi 'Sugar Daddies' and Taxi Queens

"Some information has begun to emerge, mainly anecdotal and in the media, about young women who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and are thought to have sex with them in exchange for gifts and money."

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Incentives for Change

"While community mobilisation (CM) is increasingly advocated for HIV prevention, its impact on measurable outcomes has not been established.... One reason for the lack of systematic attention to CM is that it is used across categories of HIV intervention usually considered separately, namely, biomedical, behavioural and structural interventions...

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviours among out-of-treatment men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection.

 whizzkidsoxfam.jpg

This document describes a case study done on behalf of Oxfam in order to describe the "social aspects" of the work of Africaid Whizzkids United (WKU). Africaid is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) that provides HIV prevention, treatment, and care and support services to adolescents, particularly those living with HIV, in the Edendale...

African American GLBTQ Youth in the Face of HIV/AIDS

"This article focuses on the construction of homes and families within the ballroom community, a prominent feature of urban GLBTQ communities of color in cities across the United States.”

The FreeChild Project

"This paper examines a specific aspect of participatory action research [PAR] with youth, namely, the perceptions of the marginalized and at-risk youth participants who were reached through being involved in a youth-led project."

"Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities."

"Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic....Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex...

"Cash payments to improve health outcomes have been used for many years; however, their use for HIV prevention is new and the impact not yet well understood."

This research provides a brief background on the rationale behind using cash to improve health outcomes, reviews current studies completed or underway using cash for prevention of...

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence

"Sexual exploration is a normal and typically healthy part of adolescent development. However, certain behaviors increase the likelihood of unwanted outcomes such as pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD)....This article outlines what research has to say about connections between substance use and sexual risk taking among adolescents (...

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Testing and Counselling

"HIV programming for adolescents should focus on interventions of proven effectiveness and address underlying factors driving incidence and lack of effective treatment and care in this age group."

Author: Evan Krueger, May 19 2014 - In 2012, the UCLA Center for Digital Behavior (CDB) teamed up with Epicentro, an independent, nonprofit organization in Lima, Peru that works to improve the lives of the city’s gay men through community building and by providing physical and mental health services. The CDB developed an HIV and stigma...

Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific, UNDP

This study was designed to: describe the diversity of laws that affect HIV responses in the context of sex work in the Asia Pacific region; assess the impact of laws, legal policies, and law enforcement practices on HIV responses in the context of sex work; and provide recommendations for actions required to create enabling legal and policy...

If, When and How to Tell

"In the Shona culture of Zimbabwe, a high regard for childbearing contributes to strong pressures on women to have children. For young women living with HIV, consequently, disclosure of HIV status can be a central strategy to garner support for controlling fertility."

Image credit: itu.int website

This journal article shares findings of a United States (US) study to pilot-test "+CLICK", a web-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive youth. The theory-based application, developed for perinatally and behaviourally infected youth aged 13 to 24, provides tailored activities addressing attitudes, knowledge, skills, and self-...

African American GLBTQ Youth in the Face of HIV/AIDS

"This article focuses on the construction of homes and families within the ballroom community, a prominent feature of urban GLBTQ communities of color in cities across the United States.”

"The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of youth living with HIV who transitioned from paediatric to adult care."

In this position paper, the authors maintain that due to the rate of HIV/AIDS infections in the United States (US), 13% of which occur annually among young people aged 13 to 24 years and an increasing number of perinatally infected youth, there is a need to develop transitional programmes for adolescents with chronic disease to address the many...

Image credit: Alessandro Gabrielli

"Recent research shows that most commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Europe are Romanians..., but studies on their risk behaviors are rare..."

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for HIV and other adverse reproductive and sexual health outcomes among adolescent and young female sex workers (FSW) from three large cities...

This research compares factors associated with low HIV/AIDS knowledge among internet-using men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa and the United States (US). [Footnotes are removed throughout by the editor.]

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Treatment

Med2-E-collection

This prospective pilot study to "evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of short message service (SMS) or text message reminders to improve adherence to ART [antiretroviral therapy] for youth living with HIV/AIDS" was conducted from June to November 2009 at a community-based health centre providing clinical services...

Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

"In every world region, men who have sex with men (MSM) face significantly higher rates of HIV than the general population."

This policy brief examines HIV risk factors and access to services among young MSM (YMSM), using data from the Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF)’s 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights survey (2012 GMHR). The...

"The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of youth living with HIV who transitioned from paediatric to adult care."

In this position paper, the authors maintain that due to the rate of HIV/AIDS infections in the United States (US), 13% of which occur annually among young people aged 13 to 24 years and an increasing number of perinatally infected youth, there is a need to develop transitional programmes for adolescents with chronic disease to address the many...

Image credit: Alessandro Gabrielli

"Recent research shows that most commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Europe are Romanians..., but studies on their risk behaviors are rare..."

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for HIV and other adverse reproductive and sexual health outcomes among adolescent and young female sex workers (FSW) from three large cities...

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Ado

"Because HIV treatment is a lifelong endeavor, and because many patients will initiate therapy when they are generally in good health, feel well, and demonstrate no obvious signs or symptoms of HIV disease, adherence poses a special challenge and requires commitment from the patient and the health care team."

This section from the United...

"Cross-sectional research has demonstrated that HIV/AIDS orphanhood is associated with anxiety and depression and that HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a risk factor for these outcomes."

Issues of Support, Resources, and Empowerment

"In the case of our experience, the involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS prompted us to develop this study as one of the local HIV resource organization, as our unit of identity, told us that 'given the discrepancy between the demographics of HIV cases in Vancouver and the demographics of our current members, what are the educational and...

This research evaluates the effectiveness of a programme created for HIV-infected African-American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM), located in North Carolina, United States, called STYLE (Strength Through Youth Livin’ Empowered). The programme was created to engage and retain this population in HIV primary care services. [...

The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Regional Programme, involving partner organisations in Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, conducted qualitative formative audience research to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) issues among youth...

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Harm Reduction

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

"HIV programming for adolescents should focus on interventions of proven effectiveness and address underlying factors driving incidence and lack of effective treatment and care in this age group."

The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviours among out-of-treatment men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection.

Street-Based Adolescents at High Risk of HIV in Ukraine

Through this study, the Centre for Population Studies of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine sought to "measure the extent and distribution of HIV risk behaviours among street-based adolescents in four Ukrainian cities as part of a regional UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund] HIV prevention programme for most-at-...

marps.jpg

This 30-page publication shares reports from a series of studies undertaken among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Kenya between 2009 and 2011. According to the publication, the need for effective interventions among MARPs is increasingly recognised in Kenya’s national HIV response. Even though Kenya's HIV prevalence in the general...

African American GLBTQ Youth in the Face of HIV/AIDS

"This article focuses on the construction of homes and families within the ballroom community, a prominent feature of urban GLBTQ communities of color in cities across the United States.”

The FreeChild Project

"This paper examines a specific aspect of participatory action research [PAR] with youth, namely, the perceptions of the marginalized and at-risk youth participants who were reached through being involved in a youth-led project."

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence

"Sexual exploration is a normal and typically healthy part of adolescent development. However, certain behaviors increase the likelihood of unwanted outcomes such as pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD)....This article outlines what research has to say about connections between substance use and sexual risk taking among adolescents (...

Image credit: Alessandro Gabrielli

"Recent research shows that most commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Europe are Romanians..., but studies on their risk behaviors are rare..."

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for HIV and other adverse reproductive and sexual health outcomes among adolescent and young female sex workers (FSW) from three large cities...

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk

"Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting [that] additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship."

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Condoms

"HIV programming for adolescents should focus on interventions of proven effectiveness and address underlying factors driving incidence and lack of effective treatment and care in this age group."

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

This research based in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa.

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

alcohol.png

This 104-page report, produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) presents the results of a qualitative research study undertaken to examine the impact of alcohol consumption on sexual partnerships and the implications for HIV transmission. The report presents its findings on aspects including multiple...

Young People’s Views and Perceptions Regarding Female Condoms

This 22-page report shares findings of a qualitative study conducted by Pakachere Institute for Health and Development Communication in Malawi to explore views regarding condom use among young girls and boys aged 15 to 24. Conducted in semi-urban communities of Blantyre, the study findings will be used to design and develop tools for teaching...

 whizzkidsoxfam.jpg

This document describes a case study done on behalf of Oxfam in order to describe the "social aspects" of the work of Africaid Whizzkids United (WKU). Africaid is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) that provides HIV prevention, treatment, and care and support services to adolescents, particularly those living with HIV, in the Edendale...

Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health

"This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS educational intervention on adolescents' knowledge about and perceptions of susceptibility and severity of HIV/AIDS. We also examined whether providing information about assertiveness skills led to an intention to delay initiation of sexual activity."

Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific, UNDP

This study was designed to: describe the diversity of laws that affect HIV responses in the context of sex work in the Asia Pacific region; assess the impact of laws, legal policies, and law enforcement practices on HIV responses in the context of sex work; and provide recommendations for actions required to create enabling legal and policy...

marps.jpg

This 30-page publication shares reports from a series of studies undertaken among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Kenya between 2009 and 2011. According to the publication, the need for effective interventions among MARPs is increasingly recognised in Kenya’s national HIV response. Even though Kenya's HIV prevalence in the general...

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Young People - Sex Work

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

"While community mobilisation (CM) is increasingly advocated for HIV prevention, its impact on measurable outcomes has not been established.... One reason for the lack of systematic attention to CM is that it is used across categories of HIV intervention usually considered separately, namely, biomedical, behavioural and structural interventions...

Female Sex Workers Programme Impact Assessment

This 25-page report shares finding of an impact assessment of Theatre For Change's "Interactive Theatre and Legislative theatre for sex workers and their clients" project in Malawi. The initiative was designed to ensure that sex workers, their clients, and sexually exploited children have the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to reduce the risk...

Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific, UNDP

This study was designed to: describe the diversity of laws that affect HIV responses in the context of sex work in the Asia Pacific region; assess the impact of laws, legal policies, and law enforcement practices on HIV responses in the context of sex work; and provide recommendations for actions required to create enabling legal and policy...

marps.jpg

This 30-page publication shares reports from a series of studies undertaken among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Kenya between 2009 and 2011. According to the publication, the need for effective interventions among MARPs is increasingly recognised in Kenya’s national HIV response. Even though Kenya's HIV prevalence in the general...

"Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability."

Image credit: Alessandro Gabrielli

"Recent research shows that most commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Europe are Romanians..., but studies on their risk behaviors are rare..."

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for HIV and other adverse reproductive and sexual health outcomes among adolescent and young female sex workers (FSW) from three large cities...

The main focus of this 35-page report is to review the risk factors for HIV among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa and the interventions that have been successfully implemented in this region. The report, its findings, and recommendations are based on a review of available published evidence.

Adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) who accessed sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention services, including peer-education-based health promotion and condom access, reported improved sexual behaviour. This is one of the findings of a study that assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and STIs, including HIV,...

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Medical Male Circumcision

"HIV programming for adolescents should focus on interventions of proven effectiveness and address underlying factors driving incidence and lack of effective treatment and care in this age group."

"By December 2013, it was estimated that close to 6 million men had been circumcised in the 14 priority countries for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), the majority being adolescents (10-19 years). This article discusses why efforts to scale up VMMC should prioritize adolescent men, drawing from new evidence and experiences...

This supplement to the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JADS), "a collection of reviews on adolescents, presents the complexity of the adolescent HIV epidemic and examines current evidence and experience from programmes to highlight how to improve HIV-specific outcomes. Findings in the papers were presented in a global technical...

"Radio is not a means in and of itself. It’s the air war that supports the ground troops." MCHIP Chief of Party

school_children.jpg

This journal article describes findings of a cluster randomised trial to asses a community-based, multi-component HIV and reproductive health intervention designed to change social norms for adolescents in rural Zimbabwe. The findings suggest that despite an impact on knowledge, on some attitudes, and on reported pregnancy, this intervention...

"Behavior change communication (BCC) interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic....Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex...

Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention

"It has been shown that awareness of the protective effect of male circumcision leads to high acceptability towards the introduction of medical male circumcision services within countries."

Policy Environment and Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention

This Tanzanian study is part of a situation analysis to understand the attitudes of policy makers and other key community and health authority decision makers towards male circumcision (MC), the policy and regulatory environment, and the readiness of a health system to accommodate scaling up of MC services. MC has been shown to be effective...

Dr. Susan Kasedde's presentation for the Programming for Adolescents and Youth in the Arab States/MENA Region conference in Istanbul, Turkey, December 3-7 2012, opens with 2012 statistical trends in new HIV infection in adults and children. Kasedde poses the question: "The vast majority of adolescents living with HIV (60%) are adolescent girls...

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Young People who Inject Drugs

"National strategic frameworks or plans (NSPs) determine a country’s national response to HIV and AIDS, guiding allocation of funding, resources and human capacity and are now critical for Global Fund investments.  Many plans are not strategic, include limited situational analysis and do not identify the key drivers of the epidemic and the...

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

Street-Based Adolescents at High Risk of HIV in Ukraine

Through this study, the Centre for Population Studies of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine sought to "measure the extent and distribution of HIV risk behaviours among street-based adolescents in four Ukrainian cities as part of a regional UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund] HIV prevention programme for most-at-...

marps.jpg

This 30-page publication shares reports from a series of studies undertaken among most-at-risk populations (MARPs) in Kenya between 2009 and 2011. According to the publication, the need for effective interventions among MARPs is increasingly recognised in Kenya’s national HIV response. Even though Kenya's HIV prevalence in the general...

Out-of-School Adolescents and Youth in Yunnan, China

"This study investigated multiple aspects of vulnerability to HIV in out-of-school adolescents and youth in Yunnan Province, a high HIV risk region in China."

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescence

"Sexual exploration is a normal and typically healthy part of adolescent development. However, certain behaviors increase the likelihood of unwanted outcomes such as pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD)....This article outlines what research has to say about connections between substance use and sexual risk taking among adolescents (...

Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk

"Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting [that] additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship."

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Ado

"Because HIV treatment is a lifelong endeavor, and because many patients will initiate therapy when they are generally in good health, feel well, and demonstrate no obvious signs or symptoms of HIV disease, adherence poses a special challenge and requires commitment from the patient and the health care team."

This section from the United...

Setting the Scene

This International HIV/AIDS Alliance (The Alliance) report summarises the results of site assessments on HIV and drug use in China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, and Malaysia. The assessments were conducted by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance and their teams of experts in four technical areas:

The Familias Unidas Program

"The objective of this article is to describe a program of research involving Familias Unidas, a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, aimed at reducing substance use and HIV health disparities among Hispanic youth."

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Laws and Policies

"National strategic frameworks or plans (NSPs) determine a country’s national response to HIV and AIDS, guiding allocation of funding, resources and human capacity and are now critical for Global Fund investments.  Many plans are not strategic, include limited situational analysis and do not identify the key drivers of the epidemic and the...

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

Street-Based Adolescents at High Risk of HIV in Ukraine

Through this study, the Centre for Population Studies of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine sought to "measure the extent and distribution of HIV risk behaviours among street-based adolescents in four Ukrainian cities as part of a regional UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund] HIV prevention programme for most-at-...

Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific, UNDP

This study was designed to: describe the diversity of laws that affect HIV responses in the context of sex work in the Asia Pacific region; assess the impact of laws, legal policies, and law enforcement practices on HIV responses in the context of sex work; and provide recommendations for actions required to create enabling legal and policy...

Needs of Young People living with HIV (YPLHIV)

"It is... necessary to broaden our understanding of the needs of young people living with HIV (YPLHIV) and go beyond the well-established focus upon infants, orphans and vulnerable children, to include a more sophisticated and nuanced response to the ways in which HIV affects a growing child and young person. As YPLHIV transition from childhood...

HIV Prevention Coalitions

This research, whose authorship includes the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN), describes the differential challenges in coalition processes that may facilitate or hinder coalition building to achieve HIV prevention through structural change within the ATN's Connect to Protect® (C2P) United States-based project...

Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

"In every world region, men who have sex with men (MSM) face significantly higher rates of HIV than the general population."

This policy brief examines HIV risk factors and access to services among young MSM (YMSM), using data from the Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF)’s 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights survey (2012 GMHR). The...

"The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of youth living with HIV who transitioned from paediatric to adult care."

In this position paper, the authors maintain that due to the rate of HIV/AIDS infections in the United States (US), 13% of which occur annually among young people aged 13 to 24 years and an increasing number of perinatally infected youth, there is a need to develop transitional programmes for adolescents with chronic disease to address the many...

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Young Women and Girls

"Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or...

"The low level of knowledge on cervical cancer and HPV found in baseline formative research on the part of health workers and teachers,...let alone community members, prompted governments to provide detailed training to them to ensure that they would be able to answer questions from parents, girls, and other community members..."

This review was initiated to identify interventions on HIV prevention in the Asia Pacific region with demonstrated or potential impact for adolescent and young key populations (YKP), "looking at the role of individual and structural factors in accessibility and delivery." From the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) East Asia and Pacific...

In this study, in order to evaluate the high rates of HIV infection among adolescent girls and to present evidence on what works globally to address the risk, researchers reviewed evidence on programming for adolescents from 150 studies and evaluations from 2001 to June 2013. [Footnotes are removed by the editor.]

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This 104-page report, produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) presents the results of a qualitative research study undertaken to examine the impact of alcohol consumption on sexual partnerships and the implications for HIV transmission. The report presents its findings on aspects including multiple...

Young People’s Views and Perceptions Regarding Female Condoms

This 22-page report shares findings of a qualitative study conducted by Pakachere Institute for Health and Development Communication in Malawi to explore views regarding condom use among young girls and boys aged 15 to 24. Conducted in semi-urban communities of Blantyre, the study findings will be used to design and develop tools for teaching...

Preventing HIV in U.S. Women and Girls: A Call for Social Action

According to author Cynthia Gómez, "The task of enabling most African-American and Latino women to remain uninfected with HIV goes well beyond how to use condoms, learning how to ask for condoms during sex through role-playing, or learning self-motivating statements such as 'I’m worth protecting from HIV.' Women who feel the need to please...

If, When and How to Tell

"In the Shona culture of Zimbabwe, a high regard for childbearing contributes to strong pressures on women to have children. For young women living with HIV, consequently, disclosure of HIV status can be a central strategy to garner support for controlling fertility."

HIV Prevention Coalitions

This research, whose authorship includes the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN), describes the differential challenges in coalition processes that may facilitate or hinder coalition building to achieve HIV prevention through structural change within the ATN's Connect to Protect® (C2P) United States-based project...

Innovative Approaches to HIV Prevention for Youth

"As HIV continues to proliferate in the adolescent and young adult populations, its impact is most predominate among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (especially young men of color) and heterosexual young women of color....Such individuals may lack the social power and resources to access HIV prevention services, as well...

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United Nations

"National strategic frameworks or plans (NSPs) determine a country’s national response to HIV and AIDS, guiding allocation of funding, resources and human capacity and are now critical for Global Fund investments.  Many plans are not strategic, include limited situational analysis and do not identify the key drivers of the epidemic and the...

This supplement to the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JADS), "a collection of reviews on adolescents, presents the complexity of the adolescent HIV epidemic and examines current evidence and experience from programmes to highlight how to improve HIV-specific outcomes. Findings in the papers were presented in a global technical...

Street-Based Adolescents at High Risk of HIV in Ukraine

Through this study, the Centre for Population Studies of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine sought to "measure the extent and distribution of HIV risk behaviours among street-based adolescents in four Ukrainian cities as part of a regional UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund] HIV prevention programme for most-at-...

Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific, UNDP

This study was designed to: describe the diversity of laws that affect HIV responses in the context of sex work in the Asia Pacific region; assess the impact of laws, legal policies, and law enforcement practices on HIV responses in the context of sex work; and provide recommendations for actions required to create enabling legal and policy...

Needs of Young People living with HIV (YPLHIV)

"It is... necessary to broaden our understanding of the needs of young people living with HIV (YPLHIV) and go beyond the well-established focus upon infants, orphans and vulnerable children, to include a more sophisticated and nuanced response to the ways in which HIV affects a growing child and young person. As YPLHIV transition from childhood...

"Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) are common among young people. Yet there are few opportunities for youth to be exposed to interventions that address the key drivers of stigma and discrimination, namely lack of awareness of stigma and its harmful consequences, social judgment and fear of infection through...

This report presents findings from a mapping initiative by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) that aimed to capture how faith-based organisations (FBOs) respond to violence against women (VAW) and girls in the Asia-Pacific region. As a collaborative initiative between UNFPA and the Asia-Pacific Women Faith and Development Alliance (AP-...

Image credit: Alessandro Gabrielli

"Recent research shows that most commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Europe are Romanians..., but studies on their risk behaviors are rare..."

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for HIV and other adverse reproductive and sexual health outcomes among adolescent and young female sex workers (FSW) from three large cities...

The main focus of this 35-page report is to review the risk factors for HIV among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa and the interventions that have been successfully implemented in this region. The report, its findings, and recommendations are based on a review of available published evidence.

Education Sector Response to HIV, Drugs and Sexual Health

"In order to provide an enabling environment for preventing HIV and drug abuse, it is important to have an educated population, one that does not hold misconceptions or is discriminatory towards PLHIV [people living with HIV] and key affected populations. This is where education can play an important complementary role with health sector...

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