This book is about tuberculosis (TB), HIV infections, and AIDS education (AIDucation). It is about empowering communities to prevent TB and HIV infections. It is about caring for those living with TB, HIV, and AIDS. According to the author: "AIDS and TB, 'the deadly two' are public health concerns that have devastated the global village. Africa has been grossly affected and accounts for more than 70% of the human tragedy. There is no cure for AIDS. There is a cure for TB.
Email from Dr. Edwin Mavunika Mapara to The Communication Initiative on August 15 2011.
As part of the United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) World Cup in My Village Project, initiated during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup 2010 in South Africa, the Children's Radio Foundation and local partners in Mongu, Zambia, and Rubavu districts in Rwanda worked with young people to produce radio shows and videos that were broadcast during open-air public viewings of the World Cup football matches. The programme was designed to use the power of football to communicate with young people and encourage them to make their voices heard.
The public viewing areas were mounted using inflatable air screens and satellite dishes, often in locations with no electricity, in football pitches, open fields, community schools, and refugee settlements. In Zambia, the screens were moved around each night and, according to organisers, viewings attracted 12,000 people. Earlier viewings took place in community schools and later screenings took place at a United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) refugee settlement 8 hours away from Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia. The public viewing spaces were also used for community events such as youth football games and educational activities on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention. According to UNICEF, 20,000 people in Rwanda who are living in isolated communities and are cut off from mainstream sources of information, made use of the public viewing areas in their communities.
As part of this initiative, the Children's Radio Foundation trained groups of young people in each country as youth journalists. In the radio and video workshops, young people learned about interviewing techniques, how to express their opinion clearly, and production of media pieces. Using audio recorders, cameras, and flip video cameras, young people were encouraged to report on issues affecting young people in their communities and to share their experiences and concerns with the rest of the world.
The youth-produced pieces were broadcast and live talk shows held during half-time at the public viewings, complemented by public service announcements on education, child rights, health, and other issues. Programmes were also broadcast on local, national, and international radio stations, and content was posted on the CRF website and disseminated via other social media platforms.
Following the conclusion of the World Cup, the young journalists in Zambia have arranged to work with reporters at a local community radio station to create regular youth programming and to host a talk show for young people in their communities. Acting as peer leaders, they are engaging young people from their communities in the programme. Many of the young journalists have also taken on the role of climate ambassadors, advocating for responsible environmental behaviour in their communities.
The inflatable screens and projectors will also be used by UNICEF Country Offices for future community activities. The project's community partner in Rwanda, Vision Jeunesse Nouvelle, is discussing the possibility of starting a youth radio station based on the philosophy "radio for young people, by young people" with the core group of newly trained youth reporters.
Children, Education, Environment, HIV/AIDS, Rights.
World Cup in My Village was created as a part of UNICEF's support of the 1 Goal campaign, which is designed to get every child into primary school by 2015. The majority of media pieces produced by young people were about how education or the lack of it had affected their lives.
Many young people in Zambia who were interviewed by the youth journalists remarked that they had only ever heard football games on the radio and that it was the first time they had actually seen the players they had heard so much about.
United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF), Children's Radio Foundation, Vision Jeunesse Nouvelle (Rwanda), Grassroots Soccer (Zambia), and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Launched in November 2009, Shuga is a three-part television drama produced by MTV in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United States President's Emergency Plan for
Filmed in Nairobi, Shuga is designed to be a hard-hitting TV drama series that aims to lift the lid on the reckless sex lives and loves of young Kenyans and their partners. The drama series consists of three concurrent but interlinked storylines, following the complicated sex lives of a group of 'cool' Kenyan students. One of the storylines is about Ayira, a modern girl who wants it all, including her long-time boyfriend and an older man. UNICEF and PEPFAR worked out the priority messages to get across to young people, which were about the dangers of having multiple sexual partners, the need to get tested for HIV, and stigma associated with being positive.
The show was designed to be sexy without being too explicit and to talk openly about sex. The producers were careful not to be too explicit: showing underwear rather than nudity, writhing rather than body parts. But many of the 85 broadcasters in more than 100 territories to whom MTV gave Shuga still opted for a slightly censored version. According to Georgia Arnold of MTV, Shuga works because young people identify with the characters. "They are great, sexy, passionate actors and actresses and people clicked with them. The aim was to make a really good drama that people would watch. There's always going to be a didactic element, but you can make it in a way that it seeps to the back of the brain".
Episodes, as well as behind the scenes video clips, can be downloaded on the MTV Ignite website.
See below for a short musical video with music by Nonini based on the Shuga series.
According to a recent survey conducted by the Johns Hopkins University, 60% of Kenyan youth had seen Shuga, knew the main messages, and could identify lessons to be learned. Almost 50% of groups of viewers interviewed talked about the characters and messages with close friends. They also talked about it with family and acquaintances, although only 15% talked about them with a partner. More than 90% of Kenyans and 50-60% of a panel of young Zambians said they believed the show had an impact on their thinking. Kenyan participants also said they were more likely to take an HIV test after watching Shuga.
Click here to download the full evaluation.
Launched in 1998, Staying Alive is a multimedia global HIV and AIDS prevention campaign that challenges stigma and discrimination associated with HIV/AIDS as well as empowers young people to protect themselves from infection. The Emmy award-winning campaign consists of documentaries, public service announcements, youth forums, and web content. Staying Alive provides all its television programming rights-free and at no cost to third party broadcasters globally in order to get prevention messages out to the widest possible audience.
MTV, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
This guide, written in Zambia, aims to equip teachers and others with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to plan and facilitate effective sexuality and life-skills lessons.
Sexuality and Life-Skills: Participatory Activities on Sexual and Reproductive Health with Young People
This toolkit, an effort of health practitioners in Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Uganda, is written to facilitate participatory learning activities with young people to equip them with the knowledg
Initiated in 2001, the Global Teenager Project Zambia (GTPZ) is part of the international Global Teenager Project (GTP), an initiative launched by the International Institute for Communication for Dev
The overall objective of the project is to use ICTs to: connect local and international learners and teachers, developing educational content, promote cross cultural understanding, and raise ICT literacy and awareness in schools. The objectives specific to GTPZ are:
- developing ICT skills for students and teachers across Zambia;
- enhancing the public profile of GTP Zambia, including creating a website as well as soliciting press coverage in order to create further opportunities to expand the GTP to more schools, especially outside of Lusaka; and
- overcoming connectivity and technical challenges by developing facilities to provide greater technical support to schools.
In Zambia, the project has included building the skills of the 11 of the 25 participating schools. A 4-day Head Teachers workshop was organised in ICT skills followed by a 2-day teacher workshop in the new features of GTP (wiki's and the GTP website). In addition, two radio shows were broadcast to raise awareness about GTP in Zambia, and a DVD was developed to showcase the GTP project and to orient new students and teachers.
The main strategy behind the Global Teenager project is the "Learning Circle" concept, developed by American educator Margaret Riel. In brief, Learning Circles are web-based, virtual environments for intercultural exchange and learning. The Learning Circle set-up works as follows: Twice a year, under the guidance of facilitators and "country coordinators", groups of 8-10 classes from different schools all over the world link up via email or the internet to form a Learning Circle. All communication is visible on the Virtual Campus website. The teacher plays a key role in the process. The classes select a theme from a shortlist of topics ranging from health, environment, human rights, globalisation, and "my life". For the next 10 weeks, the secondary school pupils in each Learning Circle email each other on that one topic, using a structured 6-phase method:
- Phase 1: Teachers prepare their pupils to take part in the Learning Circles and learn how to manage incoming email.
- Phase 2 (weeks 1-2): Students say "hello" to other Learning Circle schools using an open "Class Letter" introducing themselves and their school.
- Phase 3 (week 3): Students sponsor a question for the Learning Circle.
- Phase 4 (weeks 4-6): Students answer the sponsored questions posed in the Learning Circle.
- Phase 5 (weeks 7-9): Students reflect upon their thoughts, summarise, and send their final report.
- Phase 6 (week 10): Students say "goodbye" to each other; the Learning Circle is formally closed.
All discussions are conducted in English, but organisers are in the process of developing French and Spanish Learning Circles. The content of the Circles is formed by the participants themselves and as such reflect local contexts. Schools can experiment with different approaches to both learning and teaching, sharing their findings with other schools.
ICTs, Youth, Education
According to organisers, while many schools in developed countries have integrated ICT skills into the curriculum, most schools in developing countries are still in this process or are getting connected. What binds them together is that most schools in developed as well as developing countries have not yet succeeded in harnessing ICTs to a specific purpose like research or intercultural exchange or, for instance, collaborative and international learning. GTP involves more than 2,500 pupils from 95 schools in Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America, Europe, and the Middle East, and organisers say that the number is rising.
Regular feedback highlights a number of benefits to GTPZ. Students engage in intercultural exchange, where stereotypical images and preconceived ideas give way to a deeper understanding and sensitivity to other belief systems. They are given a solid grounding in critical thinking, teamwork, and independent learning while using ICTs. The Circles also provide a democratic information exchange, creating a level playing field where everyone is equal and an expert in his or her own field. Organisers say that lasting friendships are formed through the programme. In addition, teachers are taught ICT skills and shown how to integrate ICT into their classrooms, and can use the Cirlces to find out about different teaching styles, as well as strategies adopted by other countries to tackle global educational issues.
International Institute for Communication for Development (IICD) and Trio Consult.
"Love - Stories in a Time of HIV/AIDS" is a series of 10 half-hour films produced for television in 10 countries in Southern Africa, exploring the many facets of love in the context of HIV/AIDS. Launched in 2009, the series is part of the OneLove regional campaign, which aims to educate and create awareness on the effects of multiple concurrent partnerships, as well as to encourage youth to take responsibility for their lives and their actions.
The 10 films comprising the series are designed to tell stories that cross borders, entertain and move people, challenge deeply held beliefs, and get people to pause and think. According to organisers, each film carries a strong educational message and is rooted in in-depth research. The series is a culmination of a capacity-building programme that was initiated by Soul City Institute: Health and Development Communication, which involved 120 people (writers, producers, technical crew, and directors from 10 countries) being trained and mentored in the development and production of effective and entertaining drama.
The series, which is designed for youth and adults, was developed in different local languages with English sub-titles. The series is also being dubbed into Portuguese.
The 10 films are:
- "After the Honeymoon" - Malawi (Pakachere): In this romantic comedy, a newlywed couple returns from their honeymoon, which was not a success. Tinyade wants to talk about it, but it makes her husband, Limbikani, very uncomfortable. So he talks to his old friend Kenson instead, who gives him really bad advice on how to prove he is a real man again.
- "Against the Odds" - Namibia (Desert Soul): Set in Windhoek's Khomasdal township, this story revolves around Granny Mouton, who survives by barbequing meat on the streets. It is a dream come true when the owner of a successful car wash offers her a place to cook for his customers. But things take a nasty turn when it appears that his real motive is to pursue her beautiful and innocent granddaughter, Jenny.
- "Big House, Small House" - Zimbabwe (Action): When Shingi's husband Simba tells her he is taking a second wife, she is devastated. Simba tells her it is tradition and that he still loves her. However, Shingi won't accept his explanation and decides to find out the truth about his new bride.
- "Chaguo - The Choice" - Tanzania (Femina HIP): Amani and Faraja are in love, and they have just moved in together. One night, Amani stays out all night drinking in a bar with his friends and ends up having unprotected sex. The story follows Amani's struggle to deal with the consequences as he considers his relationship and the safety of Faraja.
- "Traídos Pela Traição - Betrayed" - Mozambique (N'weti Comunicação para Saúde): Andre and Teyasse are in love but both have secrets. One day they decide to break with tradition and start afresh by being honest with each other. But, as the truth unravels, they find out that it is not so easy to come clean.
- "Umtshato - The Wedding" - South Africa (Soul City): Set in a village in the Eastern Cape, this film tells the story of Nomandla, who is in the final stages of her traditional Xhosa wedding to Makhosi. Nomandla has loved Makhosi for many years. On her special day, she discovers a terrible truth, which her mother is determined to hide.
- "Monna oa Motsamai - The Travelling Man" - Lesotho (Phela Health and Development Communications): Motsami Raliselo leads a double life. He often leaves his wife and children to travel for work to Lesotho, where he also has another sexual partner. The film deals with Motsami Raliselo's reaction when he finds out that he is HIV-positive.
- "When The Music Stops" - Zambia (Kwatu): On the surface, Jeremiah and Monalisa are a happily married couple. He is a deacon in the church, and she sings in the church choir. But underneath it all, they are trapped in an unhappy marriage. Monalisa longs for love and affection and is about to risk everything to have it. When her teenage daughter discovers the truth, Monalisa is forced to make a choice.
- "Second Chances" - Botswana (Choose Life): Lerato, a young girl from an economically poor community in Botswana, leaves home to go to university in Gaborone. She is bright and full of hope and the first girl from her village to make it to university. Lerato will do whatever it takes to fit in and be admired and gets involved with an older man who has money and resources. She then falls in love with Monamodi, a young and passionate artist, and finds out that past actions cannot easily be undone.
- "Bloodlines" - Swaziland (Lusweti): Forty-year-old business man Qhawe Hlanze has always taken care of his beloved wife and family. However, he believes that what he does outside his marriage is not only his business but his right. One fateful day, his son is seriously injured in an accident, and he needs to face the consequences of his infidelity.
The films began being broadcast on national television in all 10 countries across the region in March 2010.
Click here to watch clips of the films.
According to the organisers, "Love - Stories in a time of HIV & AIDS" builds on the success of the "Untold" television series, which - according to research - was well received and had impact. The "Untold" series also earned international recognition and was shown at film festivals in both Europe and the United States.
Phela - Health and Development Communications, Pakachere Institute of Health and Development Communication, Nweti, Desert Soul Health and Development Communication, The Soul City Institute for Health & Development Communication, Lusweti Institute of Health & Development, Femina HIP, Zambia Centre for Communication Programmes, and Action Magazine.
OneLove Southern Africa website on April 6 2010.
This 24-page report, published by the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, presents a summary of an audience reception study conducted to assess the impact of a series of HIV/AIDS education films entitled "Untold: Stories in a Time of HIV & AIDS." The report also provides an overview of the capacity building programme which was part of the series production. According to the report, the series moved and entertained audiences, created dialogue and debate, and got people thinking about the choices they face in relation to HIV and AIDS.
Onelove Southern Africa website on February 22 2010.
Rural Internet Kiosks (RIK) is a Kenyan-based organisation that manufactures and distributes movable, recyclable, cost-effective kiosks that operate with satellite connectivity and solar energy to ena
Rural Internet Kiosks produces kiosks that are independent, freestanding booths functioning on solar power and other forms of renewable energy. Each kiosk houses 3 energy-efficient personal computers. The kiosks are modelled on user-friendly software and hardware and are manufactured and assembled in a "knock-down" format, enabling them to be easily transported and set up in even very rugged regions.
The kiosks have been designed to give access to all users, including children and the disabled. According to RIK, they are also working on ways to use portable USB pen screen readers and accessible websites, which will help the visually impaired access information. Screen readers could also help people who can understand, but not necessarily read, English.
The kiosks are designed to promote entrepreneurship and electronic service delivery within rural and urban settings and, in turn, facilitate e-commerce, e-education, e-health, and e-governance. The organisers say that the kiosks have helped farmers obtain regular updates on weather patterns and produce prices, thereby expanding their revenue. Business start-ups have been able to exploit digital multimedia advertising. The internet kiosks are helping government agencies to create awareness concerning health and environment and reach out to local communities. Through the use of multimedia information outlets, communities can also access information about infectious diseases such as malaria, polio, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. The kiosks also create platforms for the promotion of tele-medicine, which is still in its infancy in most African countries.
The kiosks use the open-source Ubuntu Linux operating system, as well as other open-source software. This virtualisation technology allows up to 10 uses to share a single personal computer (PC).
Information and Communication Technology, Economic Development, Agriculture.
The RIK project was developed by Jitu Patani, also project manager at Rural Internet Kiosk, who has a vision of bridging the digital divide by providing the last mile access to rural or remote communities. RIK is working to help Africa move towards the Millennium Development Goal of Bridging the Digital Divide by year 2015.
Rural Internet Kiosks, InterSat, and Userful.
eLearning Africa website on February 5 2010.
Where the Water Meets the Sky is a documentary film which was produced by the Campaign for Female Education (Camfed), an international organisation that seeks to tackle poverty and HIV/AIDS in rural Africa by educating girls and empowering women to become leaders of change. The documentary is about a participatory filmmaking project in Zambia which seeks to provide women in Africa with the tools to share their own stories and perspectives.
The film documents a workshop held by Camfed that involved teaching a group of 23 women about how to make a film as a way to speak out about their lives and challenge local traditions. According to Camfed, many of the women involved could not read or write, and few had been exposed to film or television. The film portrays the workshop process, as well as the stories of the women involved, focusing on one particular young woman, an 18-year old orphan, Penelop, and her struggle to provide for herself and her siblings in the wake of her parents' deaths. Ultimately, the film goes beyond documenting the workshop process and telling Penelop's story, and becomes a journey in empowerment, as the women challenge age-old social injustices within their community and encourage serious change.
Camfed decided to make the documentary film of the workshop process in Zambia after a similar workshop in Ghana. According to Camfed, the workshop process in Ghana proved transformative change for the women who participated, and, for that reason, they suggested that the women participating in the workshop in Zambia be the subject of a documentary film.
For more information and to view a promotional trailer, see Where the Water Meets the Sky website.
HIV/AIDS and Gender
According to Camfed, the women now call themselves "The Samfya Women Filmmakers". They are already working on their next film project. Some are going to school for the first time, and others have started new careers.
Where the Water Meets the Sky was named Best Film in the Global Insight category at the Jackson Hole Film Festival which was held June 5-9 2008 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, United States (US).
Camfed began training women in filmmaking in 2003 as a way of empowering them to tell their own stories, in their own voices. According to Camfed, African women are often presented to the rest of the world by outsiders, through the lens of poverty, illiteracy, and illness. Camfed's filmmaking initiative seeks to reverse that model, transforming them from subjects into authors. It seeks to provide marginalised women, who have virtually no outlets for expressing their views, with a way to challenge injustices in their community and advocate for change. Through the dynamic medium of film, their stories also have the potential to reach thousands of people. In sharing those stories with their community, they foster dialogue around sensitive issues and stir compassion instead of judgment. In sharing the films with an international audience, the films aim to subvert misconceptions, sow genuine understanding, and make a call for action.
Where The Water Meets the Sky website on January 18 2010 and October 19 2010.