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Community-Based Conservation: Is It More Effective, Efficient, and Sustainable?

Subtitle: 
Summary of Scientific Evidence Relating to Community-based Conservation
Author: 
Michael A. Rechlin
Daniel Taylor
Jim Lichatowich
Parakh Hoon
Beberly de León
Jesse Taylor
March 1, 2008
Affiliation: 

Future Generations Graduate School of Applied Community Change and Conservation

Through a global literature review and an analysis of 4 case studies, this 134-page report offers an analysis of current thinking and trends in community-based conservation.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Email from Traci Hickson to The Communication Initiative on September 22 2009; and Future Generations website, November 9 2009.

http://www.comminit.com/files/Nepal_Certified forest area-Photo -ANSAB-compressed.jpg

Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Mass Media Campaign: Assessment of Reach, Recall and Effectiveness

September 1, 2008
Affiliation: 

Population Services International (PSI) Botswana

This 52-page report, published by Population Services International (PSI) Botswana with funding from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is an evaluation of a mass media campaign

Source: 

PSI website on March 10 2009.

PSI Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Mass Media Campaign

This HIV prevention campaign, implemented by Population Services International (PSI) Botswana in 2008, focused on the HIV risk associated with the pattern of multiple concurrent partnerships (MCP).

Communication Strategies: 

The campaign's mass media channels included billboard, print, and radio. Between March and August 2008, 37 billboards were erected in a number of cities around the country, 1,059 radio spots were broadcast, and 116 print spots were published. Billboards contained headline messages; print spots provided additional information about why concurrent or overlapping partnerships are risky; and radio spots portrayed typical, everyday scenarios in which the behaviours and values represented in the common sayings play out. All media were produced in both English and Setswana.

The campaign also included community-based interpersonal communication projects such as: peer education in homes, schools, churches, and shebeens (unlicensed drinking establishments); community theatre; and the use of bar and club DJs.

The campaign used common sayings like "It is said that small houses strengthen relationships, but having small houses spreads HIV" and "a man cannot be contained in one kraal (village), but he can spread HIV from one kraal to another".

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

According to PSI, Southern Africa is the region in the world worst affected by HIV/AIDS: all the highest HIV prevalence countries are in this region. However, comparison of HIV prevalence with the "traditional" sexual behaviour indicators, such as age of sexual debut, lifetime number of sexual partners, and rates of condom use, does not explain the global distribution of HIV infections. Therefore, the focus has shifted in recent years to the pattern of sexual partnerships rather than the overall number of sexual partners as the driver of HIV transmission. Looking to the pattern of sexual relationships as a driver of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is not new, but it is only in recent years that it has gained widespread credibility and acceptance as an explanation of high HIV rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Expert Think Tank Meeting on HIV Prevention in High Prevalence Countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in May 2006 pointed to high levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships by men and women, with insufficient consistent, correct condom use, combined with low levels of male circumcision, as the key drivers of the HIV epidemic in the region.

One communication objective of the campaign was to encourage people engaged in MCP to reflect on their own behaviour. According to evaluations conducted by PSI, the campaign succeeded in provoking thought about multiple partners and HIV risk, with people expressing a wish to change behaviour, or actually changing it. It also aimed to get people talking about the issues related to MCP; evaluations suggest it had some success in this regard as well, mostly in private discussion between friends and partners.

Partner Text: 

National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) and African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP)

Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Among Men and Women aged 15-34 in Botswana

Author: 
Diana Gourvenec
Noah Taruberekera
Obakeng Mochaka
Toby Kasper
December 1, 2007
Affiliation: 

PSI Botswana

This 53-page report, published by PSI (Population Services International) Botswana, documents the findings of a national tracking survey of youth and adults aged 15-34.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

PSI website on January 23 2009.

Soul City Institute Regional Programme 2002 - 2007 Impact Evaluation Summary

May 1, 2008

This is an evaluation of the Soul City Regional Programme (SCRP), an HIV/AIDS communication project which involves 8 southern African countries and combined the adaptation of local communication materials with a large-scale capacity building programme. The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication identified local partners in each country who then, with support from Soul City, set up their own health communication programme. The 8 countries produced a total of 20 titles in the 5-year period from 2002 to 2007.

Source: 

Soul City website on November 20 2008.

Southern African Journalists' Bursary

The International Journalists' Programmes (IJP) is offering a bursary to as many as 6 young Southern African and as many as 5 young German journalists.

Deadline Date: 
January 31, 2011

Untold: Stories in a Time of HIV and AIDS

Untold is a series of 9 short films from 9 Southern African countries - Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The series forms part of a cross border regional collaboration, led by the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, and is an effort to act together as a region to help deal with the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. Over an 18-month period, producers, scriptwriters, and directors from each of the 9 countries were trained in filmmaking and the edutainment process.

Communication Strategies: 

According to the Soul City Regional Programme, as HIV and AIDS does not respect borders, the success in curtailing the epidemic depends on a coordinated regional response, which not only allows organisations in the different countries to share best practice, but also ensures synergy of health messages.

The series of 24-minute films aims to change complex patterns of particular sexual behaviour that put people at risk of HIV infection. According to Soul City, this cannot be done through simple messages. Through drama, it is, however, possible to deal with the journey of complex characters facing complex choices, whilst entertaining and educating. The series aims to reach people with authentic local stories that will get people talking and challenge them to reflect on their own lives and the lives of the people around them. The films are shot in the local languages of the respective countries.

According to the organisers, television is an important vehicle for reaching large audiences and has the potential to contribute significantly to Africa’s development. For that reason, the project also aimed to create opportunities for local filmmakers to develop their skills to tell new stories and grow the local content of quality dramas on television across the region.

Filmmakers and writers across the region attended an intensive 18-month accredited training course in script writing and drama film production in order to make the edutainment films. The multifaceted training programme consisted of: workshops with writers and filmmakers from across the region; follow-up assignments; and mentorship and technical support provided by well-known directors and producers on set and during pre- and post-production.

The filmmakers worked closely with the local NGO partners of the Soul City Regional Programme, who provided input on the content and messaging of the films, and were involved in much of the research and testing that formed part of the production process.

The series consists of the following 9 films (partner organisations indicated in brackets):

The Test - Malawi (Pakachere)
This is a comedy about facing fear. A successful, ambitious young Malawian man is too scared to have an HIV test at the request of his girlfriend, even though this may jeopardise his relationship.

Secrets and Lies - South Africa (Soul City)
A couple, who are unable to communicate with each other, seek comfort and pleasure elsewhere. This films looks at how HIV can enter a relationship and how keeping secrets can put people's lives at risk.

A Tempestade (The Storm) - Mozambique (N'weti Comunicação para Saúde) [See the video, below]
This is a story about domestic violence in a small fishing community in Mozambique. A young fisherman must risk his relationship with his father to save his mother from harm at the hands of his father.

Ulendo wa Rose (Rose's Journey) - Zambia (Kwatu)
This is a story about a young HIV-positive orphan in need of care and support and the choices faced by her extended family who are considering taking care of her.

Batjele (Tell Them) - Swaziland (Lusweti)
This film, set in the foothills of Manzini, tells the story of a young Swazi girl who is being abused by her teacher. In order to expose the abusive teacher, she must stand up against a community that does not believe her.

Rebel Rhymes - Botswana (Choose Life)
This is a fast paced musical drama about growing up and taking responsibility. An angry young rebel rapper, in search of fame, suddenly becomes a parent to his orphaned siblings.

Mapule's Choice - Lesotho (Phela Health and Development Communications)
A young garment worker from Maseru must keep her HIV-positive status a secret to please her abusive husband. This forces her to travel long distances to get ARVs and means she does not get the emotional support she needs. She has to choose between her husband and saving herself.

Chipo’s Promise - Zimbabwe (Action)
This is the story of a young girl, living in the heart of a township in Harare, who is forced to be a mother to her orphaned younger brother and sister, after their parents pass away due to AIDS. The film shows how they struggle to make ends meet in a community that does not want them.

Desert Soul - Namibia
Set in a funky hair salon in Windhoek, a friendship is put to the test, when the wealthy, smooth-talking boyfriend of one of the characters makes a move on her friend and business partner. Facing financial pressures due to an ailing father, she needs to make a choice between money and maintaining her friendship and new business.

From October to December 2008, these films were broadcast across the region in prime-time television slots.

The films are also available on DVD. In addition, a booklet has been developed to support discussion and debate on the issues raised by the films.

Development Issues: 

HIV/AIDS

Key Points: 

The Soul City Regional Health Communication Programme was initiated by the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication in 2002. The project seeks to build a regional network of health communicators by working with identified partners in eight Southern African Development Community [SADC] countries - Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The project aims to have impact on health and development issues, in particular HIV/AIDS, by building local capacity for health promotion through training, adaptation of existing Soul City multimedia products (print, radio, and television), and, more recently, by supporting the creation of new media products in each country.

In 2009, Soul City evaluated the impact of the Untold series as a whole. It showed that "we - as individual countries and communities - are not alone and that as a region we face very similar problems. At the same time, it showed that AIDS, domestic violence and other social problems are above culture, ethnicity, language and other differences between countries."

With the film A Tempestade (The Storm), the Mozambican organisation N'weti (partner of the Soul City Regional Health Communication Programme) won the Golden Impala short Eastern Africa film award. It was conferred in 2010 at the Amakula Kampala International Film Festival: Domestic Violence is above Culture. The film was part of a mass media campaign about domestic violence, which had as a crucial objective the passing of a law against domestic violence by the Mozambican Parliament. Oxfam Novib and other affiliates supported this lobbying project for years through the partners Forum Mulher and Women and Law in Southern Africa; in August 2009, the Mozambican government adopted a law against domestic violence.

Partner Text: 

The series is sponsored by British Petroleum (BP), Royal Netherlands Embassy, European Union, Department for International Development - United Kingdom (DFID), and Irish Aid.

Source: 

Soul City website; email to Soul Beat Africa from Georgina Lefifi on October 9 2008; and Oxfam Novib website, May 23 2013.

The Communication Initiative Network and Partnership

All major development issues addressed. Convenes the communication/media development, social/behavioural change community. Social network - 85,000 please join. Knowledge sharing - 35,000 summaries, 1 million users pa. Critical peer review - ratings, comments, dialogue. Advocacy for this field. Strategic direction/funding by 20 Partners. To discuss partnership please contact Warren

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Featured

This guide for civil society organisations (CSOs) is part of the Quality of Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) and HIV Prevention programme developed by Rutgers WPF and STOP AIDS NOW! Its aim is to support CSOs working on HIV prevention interventions and SRHR education for young people in 12 African countries: Kenya, Ethiopia,...

Author: David R Patient, April 7 2014          Ever stopped to wonder why we, in HIV prevention, have spent years teaching people about HIV, prevention and ARV's [antiretroviral thearapy] and yet people still revert to their cultural/religious/traditional beliefs? I mean there is no concrete evidence...

Author Manoj Pardeshi, April 7 2014:          Pre ART: 1986 to 31st March 2004

"You have AIDS," a counselor said to me in 1997. I don't remember the exact date, but suddenly everything went blank. The counselor had spoken to me for more than 20 minutes, but I just...

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Eliminate Stigma and Discrimination

This guide for civil society organisations (CSOs) is part of the Quality of Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) and HIV Prevention programme developed by Rutgers WPF and STOP AIDS NOW! Its aim is to support CSOs working on HIV prevention interventions and SRHR education for young people in 12 African countries: Kenya, Ethiopia,...

"This model highlights the uncertainties associated with new behaviors and helps public health program implementers consider ways to resolve these uncertainties."

Author Manoj Pardeshi, April 7 2014:          Pre ART: 1986 to 31st March 2004

"You have AIDS," a counselor said to me in 1997. I don't remember the exact date, but suddenly everything went blank. The counselor had spoken to me for more than 20 minutes, but I just...

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

This guide is designed to provide facilitators with background information about the needs of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), tips for starting an adult-led information and support group, fourteen sessions for support groups, and guidance on tracking a programme's progress.

With this resource, Health COMpass provides access to health communication tools and project materials that focus on gender. They also provide a link to a full list of over 70 gender-focused materials available on their site.

A sampling of the gender tools and project examples highlighted in this Focus Package follows:

Tools -...

Rana Tassawar Ali

Author Rana Tassawar Ali, March 6 2014:      In Pakistan, an estimated 100,000 people suffer from HIV/AIDS, and the number of new HIV/AIDS cases is increasing. In Pakistan, where society is mostly governed by conservatives, people create hurdles for changing minds. In this scenario, our society has only few anti-HIV/...

"Citizen journalists are playing an increasingly important role reporting on sensitive issues, such as HIV, particularly in countries where free speech and media access is limited."

 women_out_loud.jpg

This report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explores the impact of HIV on women and the instrumental role women living with the virus are playing to end HIV/AIDS. The report includes the voices of 30 women living with HIV who have given their personal insights into how the epidemic is affecting women and on...

"In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health."

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Empower Young People

This guide for civil society organisations (CSOs) is part of the Quality of Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) and HIV Prevention programme developed by Rutgers WPF and STOP AIDS NOW! Its aim is to support CSOs working on HIV prevention interventions and SRHR education for young people in 12 African countries: Kenya, Ethiopia,...

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

This Pathfinder technical update summarises elements of a programme called 2011 APHIAplus Nairobi-Coast Health Service Delivery project that facilitated the expansion of a gender-based violence (GBV) prevention and response programme to six districts in Nairobi and five counties in Coast province in Kenya and presents recommendations to...

"For the first time in the history of the HIV epidemic, the global community has accumulated the knowledge, experience and tools to achieve an AIDS-free generation."

This guide is designed to provide facilitators with background information about the needs of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), tips for starting an adult-led information and support group, fourteen sessions for support groups, and guidance on tracking a programme's progress.

With this resource, Health COMpass provides access to health communication tools and project materials that focus on reaching urban youth. According to the United Nations, "the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history." Health COMpass reflects that this may provide young people with better access to learning, health care...

This programme summary of the second season of Revela2 contains a synopsis of 20 episodes of this television programme from Bogota, Colombia:

Rana Tassawar Ali

Author Rana Tassawar Ali, March 14 2014:          Life skills are the abilities that help us to adopt and behave positively so that we can deal effectively with challenges of every day. Life skill education refers to a large group of psychosocial and interpersonal skills which can help people make...

"Together, we can agree and advocate for a new post 2015 framework that ensures sexual and reproductive health and rights and addresses the realities of young people today."

Lost in Transitions: Current Issues Faced by Adolescents Living with HIV in Asia

This report is based upon studies of issues faced by adolescents living with HIV in Asia Pacific, released in partnership with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV (APN+) during a special session of...

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Enhance Social Protection

This guide for civil society organisations (CSOs) is part of the Quality of Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights (SRHR) and HIV Prevention programme developed by Rutgers WPF and STOP AIDS NOW! Its aim is to support CSOs working on HIV prevention interventions and SRHR education for young people in 12 African countries: Kenya, Ethiopia,...

Author Manoj Pardeshi, April 7 2014:          Pre ART: 1986 to 31st March 2004

"You have AIDS," a counselor said to me in 1997. I don't remember the exact date, but suddenly everything went blank. The counselor had spoken to me for more than 20 minutes, but I just...

This research based in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa.

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

This Pathfinder technical update summarises elements of a programme called 2011 APHIAplus Nairobi-Coast Health Service Delivery project that facilitated the expansion of a gender-based violence (GBV) prevention and response programme to six districts in Nairobi and five counties in Coast province in Kenya and presents recommendations to...

Rana Tassawar Ali

Author Rana Tassawar Ali, March 6 2014:      In Pakistan, an estimated 100,000 people suffer from HIV/AIDS, and the number of new HIV/AIDS cases is increasing. In Pakistan, where society is mostly governed by conservatives, people create hurdles for changing minds. In this scenario, our society has only few anti-HIV/...

"Leaders from around the world attending the 2011 High Level Meeting on AIDS committed to work towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and reducing AIDS-related maternal mortality. This is to be accomplished through the implementation of a new Global Plan for scaling up comprehensive prevention of mother-to-child...

 women_out_loud.jpg

This report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explores the impact of HIV on women and the instrumental role women living with the virus are playing to end HIV/AIDS. The report includes the voices of 30 women living with HIV who have given their personal insights into how the epidemic is affecting women and on...

"In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health."

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15 Million accessing treatment

Dr. Susan Kasedde's presentation for the Programming for Adolescents and Youth in the Arab States/MENA Region conference in Istanbul, Turkey, December 3-7 2012, opens with 2012 statistical trends in new HIV infection in adults and children. Kasedde poses the question: "The vast majority of adolescents living with HIV (60%) are adolescent girls...

World Youth Alliance

"UNAIDS, a United Nations body with a lot of political and financial weight, has continued to promote strategies that often do not address the fundamental underlying behaviors that facilitate the spread of HIV. The need is urgent for locally driven campaigns that are aimed at stopping risky behaviors and cultivating a culture of personal...

Reaching Youth With Out-of-Facility HIV and Reproductive Health Services

This systematic literature review was undertaken to identify policies promoting or programmes delivering HIV or reproductive health services to adolescents in their communities. The researchers reviewed studies that evaluated uptake of services or commodities. Data from studies meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively analysed.

...

"Today, Rosa gives a talk about HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to the women at El Mamey, demonstrating the correct use of condoms and reminding the women to come for their monthly medical checkups at the Clínica de Familia La Romana (La Romana Family Clinic). At the end of her talk she answers questions, addresses common...

"Several frameworks have been constructed to analyse the factors which influence and shape the uptake of evidence into policy processes in resource poor settings, yet empirical analyses of health policy making in these settings are relatively rare."

The End of AIDS?

"Throughout the XIX International AIDS Conference (aka 'AIDS 2012'), which was held in Washington, DC [US] this past July, speaker after speaker enthused that we were poised to create an 'AIDS-free generation' and that we were on the verge of 'ending AIDS.'"

Adolescents: Advancing HIV Prevention

"Despite impressive overall results in the past decade's response to HIV, especially in terms of dramatically increased treatment coverage for people living with HIV and a 40% reduction in the number of children infected with HIV due to vertical transmission between 2001 and 2011 (UNAIDS, 2012), efforts to prevent HIV sexual transmission and...

Myanmar

In Myanmar, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance focuses on promoting the health and rights of people living with, and most affected by, HIV. This short summary of conditions in Myanmar and the work of Alliance includes data on the rate of HIV (1.3%) in the general population, as well as rates among men who have sex with men (9.4%) and sex...

Bike4Care

A project of CooP-Africa: Cycling Out of Poverty, the Bike4Care project enables community health workers to visit more patients at a greater distance. In addition, a bicycle ambulance makes patient transport to health centres possible, and mobile pharmacies on bicycles enable access to medicines. CooP Africa has Bike4Care projects in Uganda,...

Keeping people living with HIV (PLHIV) - including children - adherent to antiretroviral (ART) treatment was a key goal of Samastha, a 5-year project that was launched in January 2007 with support from the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

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Eliminate gender inequalities

This research based in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa.

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

This Pathfinder technical update summarises elements of a programme called 2011 APHIAplus Nairobi-Coast Health Service Delivery project that facilitated the expansion of a gender-based violence (GBV) prevention and response programme to six districts in Nairobi and five counties in Coast province in Kenya and presents recommendations to...

With this resource, Health COMpass provides access to health communication tools and project materials that focus on gender. They also provide a link to a full list of over 70 gender-focused materials available on their site.

A sampling of the gender tools and project examples highlighted in this Focus Package follows:

Tools -...

This programme summary of the second season of Revela2 contains a synopsis of 20 episodes of this television programme from Bogota, Colombia:

 women_out_loud.jpg

This report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explores the impact of HIV on women and the instrumental role women living with the virus are playing to end HIV/AIDS. The report includes the voices of 30 women living with HIV who have given their personal insights into how the epidemic is affecting women and on...

Written in response to request to provide a "review of the literature on awareness/behaviour change strategies aimed at achieving greater gender equality, highlighting evidence of impact," this document gives an overview and information on: the role of religion, religious leaders, and institutions; media, social campaigns and community-level...

"Traversing these issues is essential to addressing the underlying structural factors that marginalize trans people, negatively impact their health and exclude them from the benefits of development."

Africa Regional Sexuality Resource Center

"In this review, behavioral interventions to promote condom use and/or modify risky sexual behaviours among women living with HIV failed to demonstrate any positive effects on behaviour change in favour of consistent condom use during intercourse."

Preventing HIV in U.S. Women and Girls: A Call for Social Action

According to author Cynthia Gómez, "The task of enabling most African-American and Latino women to remain uninfected with HIV goes well beyond how to use condoms, learning how to ask for condoms during sex through role-playing, or learning self-motivating statements such as 'I’m worth protecting from HIV.' Women who feel the need to please...

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Increase antiretroviral access

Author Manoj Pardeshi, April 7 2014:          Pre ART: 1986 to 31st March 2004

"You have AIDS," a counselor said to me in 1997. I don't remember the exact date, but suddenly everything went blank. The counselor had spoken to me for more than 20 minutes, but I just...


"In the end it is that which really spoke to me about this story: that from something unspeakably dark and inhuman a spark could be struck, that even one or two small, unknown, unconnected individuals could take on the most massive, powerful and unyielding of adversaries, and actually manage to change the world." - Dylan Mohan...

 women_out_loud.jpg

This report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explores the impact of HIV on women and the instrumental role women living with the virus are playing to end HIV/AIDS. The report includes the voices of 30 women living with HIV who have given their personal insights into how the epidemic is affecting women and on...

"Given the critical nature of ART [HIV antiretroviral therapy] to improved health outcomes, the lack of consideration of formative research - including message pretesting - to inform the communication strategy design, can have dire implications for effective HIV prevention, treatment and care programs in developing country contexts."...

The New A2B4CT of HIV Prevention

This document focuses on critiquing the ABC sexual behaviour change strategy (Abstain, Be faithful, and use Condoms) of HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa, explaining why and how it has not been effective and proposing another approach. "One of the failings of the old ABC approach was to make the exceptions the rule, and to focus upon these...

If, When and How to Tell

"In the Shona culture of Zimbabwe, a high regard for childbearing contributes to strong pressures on women to have children. For young women living with HIV, consequently, disclosure of HIV status can be a central strategy to garner support for controlling fertility."

"Faced with their own mortality an improbable group of young people, many of them HIV-positive young men, broke the mold as radical warriors taking on Washington and the medical establishment."

HIV, Health and Rights

This International HIV/AIDS Alliance (the Alliance) document sets out high-level direction and sets 17 measurable goals for the Alliance. The document sets objectives until 2015 for linking organisations to use in coordination with national plans. The Alliance secretariat is using it to develop their operational plan.

Some of the...

 Tracking Global Commitments on World AIDS Day

"If the global community is serious about achieving the beginning of the end of AIDS, there must be a renewed effort to examine, improve and scale up the financial, political and programmatic efforts needed to turn vision into action."

The End of AIDS?

"Throughout the XIX International AIDS Conference (aka 'AIDS 2012'), which was held in Washington, DC [US] this past July, speaker after speaker enthused that we were poised to create an 'AIDS-free generation' and that we were on the verge of 'ending AIDS.'"

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Empower MSM Sex Workers Transgender

Female Sex Workers Programme Impact Assessment

This 25-page report shares finding of an impact assessment of Theatre For Change's "Interactive Theatre and Legislative theatre for sex workers and their clients" project in Malawi. The initiative was designed to ensure that sex workers, their clients, and sexually exploited children have the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to reduce the risk...

"Traversing these issues is essential to addressing the underlying structural factors that marginalize trans people, negatively impact their health and exclude them from the benefits of development."

The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviours among out-of-treatment men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection.

Author: Warren Feek of The Communication Intiative, December 2 2013        "It is certain that ending the AIDS epidemic will mean so much to so many.

Highlighting findings from the July 2012 report HIV and the Law: Risks, Rights and Health by the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, this series of fact sheets from the Open Society Foundations offers information and language...

"In countries around the world...police carry out legal and illegal searches of sex workers and confiscate or destroy condoms found in their possession. In many cases, possession of condoms has been used by prosecutors as evidence of prostitution. Treating condoms as contraband forces sex workers to choose between safeguarding their health...

This 12-page case study, published by AIDSTAR-One, looks at the South African health communication programme Phaphama (which means "wise up" in Zulu and other South African languages), which was designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seeking care at a primary health care clinic...

Produced by Communication for Change (C-Change), a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded project now managed by the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3), these social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) materials for use by men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica aim to support the adoption of...

"LEGAL EMPOWERMENT: The transfer of power from the usual gatekeepers of the law - lawyers, judges, police, and state officials - to ordinary people who make the law meaningful on a local level and enhance the agency of disadvantaged populations."

"Sex workers take charge of the community empowerment process by mobilizing with other sex workers to develop solutions to the issues they face as a group, and by advocating for their rights as sex workers and as human beings."

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Featured

"This model highlights the uncertainties associated with new behaviors and helps public health program implementers consider ways to resolve these uncertainties."

This review aims to examine the role of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in HIV prevention in Africa by providing a systematic study of their potential strengths and weaknesses in effecting behaviour change. "The questions posed were:

With this resource, Health COMpass provides access to health communication tools and project materials that focus on reaching urban youth. According to the United Nations, "the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history." Health COMpass reflects that this may provide young people with better access to learning, health care...

The purpose of this website is to offer resources on voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) in order to hear about and document initiatives which are working well, in order that implementers are better able to learn from one other. "By knowing more about how other projects work in practice, program implementers can adopt and scale up ideas...

Female Sex Workers Programme Impact Assessment

This 25-page report shares finding of an impact assessment of Theatre For Change's "Interactive Theatre and Legislative theatre for sex workers and their clients" project in Malawi. The initiative was designed to ensure that sex workers, their clients, and sexually exploited children have the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to reduce the risk...

"Show me an anti-stigma program that works consistently and reliably across a range of settings, age and gender groups, across various religious, cultural and economic settings, and I’ll show you the unicorn I have in my back yard."

This video shows people discussing strategies to generate robust demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in sub-Saharan Africa at an April 2013 three-day meeting in Lusaka, Zambia. The meeting included perspectives from non-HIV-related fields, including product advertising, social marketing, and behavioural economics, as well as...

Written in response to request to provide a "review of the literature on awareness/behaviour change strategies aimed at achieving greater gender equality, highlighting evidence of impact," this document gives an overview and information on: the role of religion, religious leaders, and institutions; media, social campaigns and community-level...

Image credit: Jhpiego

Author Delia Helie, originally posted October 9 2013, cross-posted December 19 2013:     Walking up to Carewell Clinic, I see scores of men and adolescent boys sitting outside under the sun, standing in small groups under tents, and purchasing fruit and sweets from the vendors who have set up outside the facility. All of...

The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual behaviours among out-of-treatment men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection.

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Remove Punitive Laws and Policies

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This report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explores the impact of HIV on women and the instrumental role women living with the virus are playing to end HIV/AIDS. The report includes the voices of 30 women living with HIV who have given their personal insights into how the epidemic is affecting women and on...

"In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health."

Highlighting findings from the July 2012 report HIV and the Law: Risks, Rights and Health by the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, this series of fact sheets from the Open Society Foundations offers information and language...

"In countries around the world...police carry out legal and illegal searches of sex workers and confiscate or destroy condoms found in their possession. In many cases, possession of condoms has been used by prosecutors as evidence of prostitution. Treating condoms as contraband forces sex workers to choose between safeguarding their health...

"Sex workers take charge of the community empowerment process by mobilizing with other sex workers to develop solutions to the issues they face as a group, and by advocating for their rights as sex workers and as human beings."

"...structural and policy issues have created barriers for MSM/TG/SWs in seeking services and adopting individual and community harm reduction strategies..."

"It has long been recognized that vulnerability to HIV infection is not simply an issue of individual behavior but involves complex webs of individuals, communities, and social structures. Can groups and networks also make people less vulnerable to this disease?"

"How can you prevent the spread of HIV among people who may consider it one of their least pressing concerns?"

"Crisis response has developed out of the need to create an enabling environment in which KPs [key populations] feel safe and confident enough to access HIV services and change high-risk behaviors. Crisis response also makes peer educators...safer from harassment or arrest..."

UGANET is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) that was established in 1995 to bring together organisations and individuals who are interested in advocating for development and strengthening appropriate policies, legal human rights, and ethical responses to HIV/AIDS in Uganda.

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