Most Recent Knowledge Shared from the Network

November 13, 2015

Chief of Party (COP) - Pact - Hanoi, Vietnam

Description    Pact is recruiting a Chief of Party (COP) for an upcoming USAID-funded program that aims to strengthen human, organizational, and systems capacity to lead the national...

November 13, 2015

Technical Director, HIV/AIDS - Pact - Hanoi, Vietnam

Description    Pact is recruiting a Technical Director, HIV/AIDS for an upcoming USAID-funded program that aims to strengthen human, organizational, and systems capacity to lead the...

November 4, 2015

The Urban Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Social and Behavior Change Communications Implementation Kit

The Urban Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Social and Behavior Change Communications (SBCC) Implementation Kit provides a selection of Essential Elements and tools to guide the...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

October 22, 2015

Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio

Programme Summary: Shuga: Engaging Tanzanian Young People in HIV Prevention through Edutainment Radio - Tanzania - the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Tanzania in collaboration with the...

October 13, 2015

When Do Gain-Framed Health Messages Work Better than Fear Appeals?

"Message framing is one of the most researched, yet least conclusively understood, phenomena in health communication. Positive or gain-framed messages are sometimes effective, but negative or loss-...

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Community-Based Conservation: Is It More Effective, Efficient, and Sustainable?

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Summary of Scientific Evidence Relating to Community-based Conservation

Michael A. Rechlin
Daniel Taylor
Jim Lichatowich
Parakh Hoon
Beberly de León
Jesse Taylor
Publication Date
March 1, 2008

Future Generations Graduate School of Applied Community Change and Conservation

Through a global literature review and an analysis of 4 case studies, this 134-page report offers an analysis of current thinking and trends in community-based conservation.


Email from Traci Hickson to The Communication Initiative on September 22 2009; and Future Generations website, November 9 2009. forest area-Photo -ANSAB-compressed.jpg

Republic of Botswana: National Campaign Plan - Multiple Concurrent Partnerships

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Publication Date
March 1, 2009

From the Executive Summary of this National AIDS Coordinating Agency Botswana (NACA) document:


Google search on October 27 2009. group actors.JPG

Learning and Knowing in Indigenous Societies Today

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Peter Bates, ed.
Moe Chiba, ed
Sabine Kube, ed.
Douglas Nakashima, ed.
Publication Date
June 1, 2009


Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Mass Media Campaign: Assessment of Reach, Recall and Effectiveness

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Publication Date
September 1, 2008

Population Services International (PSI) Botswana

This 52-page report, published by Population Services International (PSI) Botswana with funding from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is an evaluation of a mass media campaign


PSI website on March 10 2009.

PSI Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Mass Media Campaign

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This HIV prevention campaign, implemented by Population Services International (PSI) Botswana in 2008, focused on the HIV risk associated with the pattern of multiple concurrent partnerships (MCP).

Communication Strategies: 

The campaign's mass media channels included billboard, print, and radio. Between March and August 2008, 37 billboards were erected in a number of cities around the country, 1,059 radio spots were broadcast, and 116 print spots were published. Billboards contained headline messages; print spots provided additional information about why concurrent or overlapping partnerships are risky; and radio spots portrayed typical, everyday scenarios in which the behaviours and values represented in the common sayings play out. All media were produced in both English and Setswana.

The campaign also included community-based interpersonal communication projects such as: peer education in homes, schools, churches, and shebeens (unlicensed drinking establishments); community theatre; and the use of bar and club DJs.

The campaign used common sayings like "It is said that small houses strengthen relationships, but having small houses spreads HIV" and "a man cannot be contained in one kraal (village), but he can spread HIV from one kraal to another".

Development Issues: 


Key Points: 

According to PSI, Southern Africa is the region in the world worst affected by HIV/AIDS: all the highest HIV prevalence countries are in this region. However, comparison of HIV prevalence with the "traditional" sexual behaviour indicators, such as age of sexual debut, lifetime number of sexual partners, and rates of condom use, does not explain the global distribution of HIV infections. Therefore, the focus has shifted in recent years to the pattern of sexual partnerships rather than the overall number of sexual partners as the driver of HIV transmission. Looking to the pattern of sexual relationships as a driver of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is not new, but it is only in recent years that it has gained widespread credibility and acceptance as an explanation of high HIV rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Expert Think Tank Meeting on HIV Prevention in High Prevalence Countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in May 2006 pointed to high levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships by men and women, with insufficient consistent, correct condom use, combined with low levels of male circumcision, as the key drivers of the HIV epidemic in the region.

One communication objective of the campaign was to encourage people engaged in MCP to reflect on their own behaviour. According to evaluations conducted by PSI, the campaign succeeded in provoking thought about multiple partners and HIV risk, with people expressing a wish to change behaviour, or actually changing it. It also aimed to get people talking about the issues related to MCP; evaluations suggest it had some success in this regard as well, mostly in private discussion between friends and partners.

Partner Text: 

National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) and African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP)

Multiple Concurrent Partnerships Among Men and Women aged 15-34 in Botswana

Your rating: None (1 vote)
Diana Gourvenec
Noah Taruberekera
Obakeng Mochaka
Toby Kasper
Publication Date
December 1, 2007

PSI Botswana

This 53-page report, published by PSI (Population Services International) Botswana, documents the findings of a national tracking survey of youth and adults aged 15-34.


PSI website on January 23 2009.

Soul City Institute Regional Programme 2002 - 2007 Impact Evaluation Summary

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Publication Date
May 1, 2008

This is an evaluation of the Soul City Regional Programme (SCRP), an HIV/AIDS communication project which involves 8 southern African countries and combined the adaptation of local communication materials with a large-scale capacity building programme. The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication identified local partners in each country who then, with support from Soul City, set up their own health communication programme. The 8 countries produced a total of 20 titles in the 5-year period from 2002 to 2007.


Soul City website on November 20 2008.

Southern African Journalists' Bursary

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The International Journalists' Programmes (IJP) is offering a bursary to as many as 6 young Southern African and as many as 5 young German journalists.

Deadline Date
Deadline Date: 
January 31, 2011

One Love: Multiple and Concurrent Sexual Partnerships in Southern Africa

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A Ten Country Research Report

Michael Jana
Mzwethu Nkambule
Dorothy Tumbo
Publication Date
August 1, 2008

This report was designed to inform the development of an HIV prevention campaign by the Soul City Regional Programme (SCRP) aimed at reducing new infections in the southern Africa region by focusing on reducing Multiple Concurrent Partnerships (MCP). The research was conducted in each of the 10 countries which form part of the Soul City Regional Programme: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Soul City website on October 20 2008.

Untold: Stories in a Time of HIV and AIDS

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Untold is a series of 9 short films from 9 Southern African countries - Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The series forms part of a cross border regional collaboration, led by the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, and is an effort to act together as a region to help deal with the HIV epidemic in southern Africa. Over an 18-month period, producers, scriptwriters, and directors from each of the 9 countries were trained in filmmaking and the edutainment process.

Communication Strategies: 

According to the Soul City Regional Programme, as HIV and AIDS does not respect borders, the success in curtailing the epidemic depends on a coordinated regional response, which not only allows organisations in the different countries to share best practice, but also ensures synergy of health messages.

The series of 24-minute films aims to change complex patterns of particular sexual behaviour that put people at risk of HIV infection. According to Soul City, this cannot be done through simple messages. Through drama, it is, however, possible to deal with the journey of complex characters facing complex choices, whilst entertaining and educating. The series aims to reach people with authentic local stories that will get people talking and challenge them to reflect on their own lives and the lives of the people around them. The films are shot in the local languages of the respective countries.

According to the organisers, television is an important vehicle for reaching large audiences and has the potential to contribute significantly to Africa’s development. For that reason, the project also aimed to create opportunities for local filmmakers to develop their skills to tell new stories and grow the local content of quality dramas on television across the region.

Filmmakers and writers across the region attended an intensive 18-month accredited training course in script writing and drama film production in order to make the edutainment films. The multifaceted training programme consisted of: workshops with writers and filmmakers from across the region; follow-up assignments; and mentorship and technical support provided by well-known directors and producers on set and during pre- and post-production.

The filmmakers worked closely with the local NGO partners of the Soul City Regional Programme, who provided input on the content and messaging of the films, and were involved in much of the research and testing that formed part of the production process.

The series consists of the following 9 films (partner organisations indicated in brackets):

The Test - Malawi (Pakachere)
This is a comedy about facing fear. A successful, ambitious young Malawian man is too scared to have an HIV test at the request of his girlfriend, even though this may jeopardise his relationship.

Secrets and Lies - South Africa (Soul City)
A couple, who are unable to communicate with each other, seek comfort and pleasure elsewhere. This films looks at how HIV can enter a relationship and how keeping secrets can put people's lives at risk.

A Tempestade (The Storm) - Mozambique (N'weti Comunicação para Saúde) [See the video, below]
This is a story about domestic violence in a small fishing community in Mozambique. A young fisherman must risk his relationship with his father to save his mother from harm at the hands of his father.

Ulendo wa Rose (Rose's Journey) - Zambia (Kwatu)
This is a story about a young HIV-positive orphan in need of care and support and the choices faced by her extended family who are considering taking care of her.

Batjele (Tell Them) - Swaziland (Lusweti)
This film, set in the foothills of Manzini, tells the story of a young Swazi girl who is being abused by her teacher. In order to expose the abusive teacher, she must stand up against a community that does not believe her.

Rebel Rhymes - Botswana (Choose Life)
This is a fast paced musical drama about growing up and taking responsibility. An angry young rebel rapper, in search of fame, suddenly becomes a parent to his orphaned siblings.

Mapule's Choice - Lesotho (Phela Health and Development Communications)
A young garment worker from Maseru must keep her HIV-positive status a secret to please her abusive husband. This forces her to travel long distances to get ARVs and means she does not get the emotional support she needs. She has to choose between her husband and saving herself.

Chipo’s Promise - Zimbabwe (Action)
This is the story of a young girl, living in the heart of a township in Harare, who is forced to be a mother to her orphaned younger brother and sister, after their parents pass away due to AIDS. The film shows how they struggle to make ends meet in a community that does not want them.

Desert Soul - Namibia
Set in a funky hair salon in Windhoek, a friendship is put to the test, when the wealthy, smooth-talking boyfriend of one of the characters makes a move on her friend and business partner. Facing financial pressures due to an ailing father, she needs to make a choice between money and maintaining her friendship and new business.

From October to December 2008, these films were broadcast across the region in prime-time television slots.

The films are also available on DVD. In addition, a booklet has been developed to support discussion and debate on the issues raised by the films.

Development Issues: 


Key Points: 

The Soul City Regional Health Communication Programme was initiated by the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication in 2002. The project seeks to build a regional network of health communicators by working with identified partners in eight Southern African Development Community [SADC] countries - Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The project aims to have impact on health and development issues, in particular HIV/AIDS, by building local capacity for health promotion through training, adaptation of existing Soul City multimedia products (print, radio, and television), and, more recently, by supporting the creation of new media products in each country.

In 2009, Soul City evaluated the impact of the Untold series as a whole. It showed that "we - as individual countries and communities - are not alone and that as a region we face very similar problems. At the same time, it showed that AIDS, domestic violence and other social problems are above culture, ethnicity, language and other differences between countries."

With the film A Tempestade (The Storm), the Mozambican organisation N'weti (partner of the Soul City Regional Health Communication Programme) won the Golden Impala short Eastern Africa film award. It was conferred in 2010 at the Amakula Kampala International Film Festival: Domestic Violence is above Culture. The film was part of a mass media campaign about domestic violence, which had as a crucial objective the passing of a law against domestic violence by the Mozambican Parliament. Oxfam Novib and other affiliates supported this lobbying project for years through the partners Forum Mulher and Women and Law in Southern Africa; in August 2009, the Mozambican government adopted a law against domestic violence.

Partner Text: 

The series is sponsored by British Petroleum (BP), Royal Netherlands Embassy, European Union, Department for International Development - United Kingdom (DFID), and Irish Aid.


Soul City website; email to Soul Beat Africa from Georgina Lefifi on October 9 2008; and Oxfam Novib website, May 23 2013.

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