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Gender Equality, HIV and AIDS: A Challenge for the Education Sector

Author: 
Sheila Aikman, ed.
Elaine Unterhalter, ed.
Tania Boler, ed.
January 1, 2008
Affiliation: 

University of East Anglia (Aikman), University of London (Unterhalter), Marie Stopes International (Boler)

This book, as described by its publisher, Oxfam Great Britain (GB), is assembled from 11 studies to show that while gender inequalities in society generally, and particularly within the education s

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Email from Helen Moreno to The Communication Initiative on January 27 2009.

Understanding and Challenging TB Stigma: Toolkit for Action

Author: 
Ross Kidd
Sue Clay
Steve Belemu
Virginia Bond
Mutale Chonta
Chipo Chiiya
Publication Date: 
March 1, 2009

This toolkit was developed as part of the International HIV/AIDS Alliance’s regional training programme, conducted in partnership with the Zambia AIDS-Related Tuberculosis (TB) Project (ZAMBART) inv

Cost: 
Free to download; printed copies free to organisations and individuals working in Africa.
Languages: 

English

Number of Pages: 

70

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Email received from Garry Robson to Soul Beat Africa on March 19 2009; Aids Alliance website on April 4 2009; and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine website, May 18 2010.

Sport in Action: Sport in the Development Process

Author: 
Mercia Takavarasha
Justin Mukumbo
Frankson Muchindu
Kizito Chileshe
Teresa Muchindika
Junie Kayoki
Veronica Shipanuka
Publication Date: 
November 1, 2004
Publisher: 
Cost: 
Free to download.
Languages: 

English

Number of Pages: 

93

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Sport for Development website on March 18 2009.

Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) in Zambia

Communication Strategies: 

MeTA is based on the premise that bringing together various stakeholders - the private sector, civil society, the government, and other interest groups - in both face-to-face and virtual gathering spaces can spark action for supporting the development of viable, efficient medicines markets and supply systems.

Civil society organisations (CSOs) have been active in building the MeTA strategy in Zambia. Four Zambian CSO representatives took part in a skills-building seminar in Uganda in February 2008 designed to improve the capacity of the health sector to ensure that patients take appropriate, affordable, safe medicines when they are needed. A number of skills development sessions provided opportunities for participants to sharpen their abilities in research, communication and advocacy, and influencing and negotiating. They also explored how to monitor prices, improve collaboration and networking, make use of a rights approach to access to medicines, engage with the media, interpret data, develop policy briefs, and understand equity issues. A key feature of all the skills sessions was the emphasis on building on the experience of the participants and sharing that experience. The Zambia group met separately, which led to the resolution to brief the wider CSO community and meet other organisations participating in the MeTA process, to develop a baseline assessment of the situation in their country, and to organise an advocacy strategy.

Development Issues: 

Health, Rights.

Key Points: 

"Bribery in the health system results in higher drug prices", Goodwell Lungu of Transparency International Zambia said as MeTA Zambia was being formed. And, Lungu elaborated, lack of information for patients about services and medicines - about where and when they are provided, about who provides them, and the procedures to be followed - creates an environment in which corruption can flourish.

Recent health reforms in Zambia aim to "provide equity of access to cost-effective, quality health care as close to the family as possible." But, according to MeTA Zambia, there are 3 main challenges around access to health: proximity to services, costs, and human resources. In urban areas, 99% of households are within 5 kilometres of a health facility as compared to 50% in rural areas. Household expenditures on health also vary according to location; economically poorer rural households spend a higher proportion on health when costs in kind are included. Human resources are also strained due to medical staff leaving the country or moving from the public sector to the private sector, as well as the impact of HIV and AIDS.

MeTA Zambia explains that, in recent years, failures in the procurement and supply of medicines have been acknowledged, with essential drugs often out of stock. The connection between the different units and health care facilities and the related information system (health care facilities sending up usage data to forecast, placing orders before drugs get out of stock, etc.) did not work routinely, forcing emergency procurements when/if funds were available. This led to high prices being paid, further deteriorating the situation.

Partner Text: 

The UK Department for International Development (DFID) is providing initial funding. Other partners include governments, global and national civil society organisations, pharmaceutical and other business interests, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

MeTA website, accessed on March 20 2009.

Reporting on Agriculture and Women: Africa

Launched in June 2007, Reporting on Agriculture and Women: Africa is a 4-year project by the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) designed to enhance reporting on the role women play in agric

Communication Strategies: 

During the first phase of the project, research was conducted in 3 African countries - Mali, Uganda, and Zambia - to document the challenges media face in covering agriculture, rural development, and women. The 3 countries were selected based on agriculture's important role in their respective communities, their geographical spread, the diversity of their media sectors, and their accessible media environments. Results revealed that:

  • Only 4% of media coverage is devoted to agriculture, yet agriculture makes up 34% of Sub-Saharan Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) and 40% of the region's exports, and it accounts for 70% of total employment.
  • Women are almost invisible in the media. In the agricultural coverage monitored, women were focal points of just 7% of the stories. Yet women produce 70% of Sub-Saharan Africa's food and make up half the region's population.


During the second phase of the project, which launched in February 2009, frayintermedia, on behalf of the IWMF, established partnerships with 6 media houses in Mali, Uganda, and Zambia. The 6 selected media houses will participate in a programme that provides continuous on-site training and specialised attention to the journalists at these media houses. In Mali, the media houses are L'Essor, a state-owned daily newspaper, and Radio Klédu, an independent radio station. In Uganda, they are The Daily Monitor, an independent national daily newspaper, and the Uganda Broadcasting Corporation. In Zambia, the media houses are The Times and the Zambian National Broadcasting Corporation. The selected media houses are expected to establish foundations for best practices on how to cover agriculture and the role of women within agriculture and rural development, and to support gender equality in their newsrooms. The media houses have been selected after an assessment of their professional output, their openness to receiving training, and their ability to maintain sustainable coverage on agriculture and rural development.

Organisers say that by making use of a proven training model, the project strives to:

  • increase and sustain accurate, consistent, and more rigorous news media reporting on agriculture and rural development;
  • incorporate women's role, stories, needs, and solutions in the coverage of agriculture and rural economies;
  • develop gender equality in the newsroom.


According to IWMF board member Akwe Amosu, the key component of this project is incorporating reporting on, by, and about women in agriculture in Africa. Amosu added that, "women reporters should have a better chance of getting out there and telling that story, trying to influence policymakers on behalf of the women who are living the real rural life in Africa."

Development Issues: 

Agriculture, Women, Food Security

Key Points: 

According to IWMF, malnutrition and food insecurities remain a major challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa, and media has a responsibility to report on the crisis. IWMF explains that agriculture is a critical source of livelihood and a pathway out of poverty in most African countries, and it ought to be a key subject for African media.

Partner Text: 

IWMF, The Daily Monitor in Uganda, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation, The Post in Zambia, the Zambian National Broadcasting Corporation, L'Essor and Radio Klédu in Mali.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

IWMF website on February 13 2009.

Editorial Guidelines and Principles for Reporting on Children in the Media 2008

Subtitle: 
A Snapshot of Children in Zambian News
Author: 
Bob Steele
Publication Date: 
December 1, 2008
Cost: 
Free to download
Languages: 

English

Number of Pages: 

12

Source: 

MMA website on January 22 2008; and email from William Bird to The Communication Initiative on October 15 2009.

Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA)

Communication Strategies: 

MeTA is, first and foremost, a collaboration: Stakeholders from public, private, and non-profit sectors working together to effect significant positive change. It is hoped that, by joining these personnel in face-to-face and virtual meeting spaces, brainstorming will be sparked about how to improve information access, scrutiny, and use, to the end of supporting the development of viable, efficient medicines markets and supply systems of essential health commodities such as contraceptives, diagnostics, drugs, laboratory supplies, and vaccines.

 

Specifically, MeTA's financial and technical support encourages a focus on making information about medicines publicly available. To that end, it will implement actions designed to strengthen national capacity – including the capacity of stakeholder groups to engage in a process to collect, analyse, disclose, and use data on the quality and registration status of medicines, their availability, price, and promotion policies and practices. Each country has its own context and ways of providing medicines. Analysis and public disclosure of how the medicine supply chain works, and issues affecting the affordability of medicines, equitable access, and the rational use of medicines will help to see how to improve policy, practice, and health outcomes for people. In general, however, when a country implements MeTA, it makes a commitment to progressively disclose a standard set of core data covering the quality, availability, price, and promotion of medicines. Stakeholders sign on to a core code of principles, and also commit to fully involve civil society, business, and other stakeholders in the effort to help address problems in the pharmaceutical market. This multi-stakeholder approach aims to shift some decision-making power to consumers and put greater competitive pressure on suppliers, as well as to promote better governance and more appropriate resource allocation by public purchasers.

 

In MeTA countries, the average person – in time – should be able to access a wide range of information on the price, availability, quality, and promotion of medicines via the internet, local newspapers, television, and radio, and through community meetings. Details about specific in-country events, activities, and strategies for information dissemination may be located on the interactive MeTA website.

 

To explore one strategy in detail, an important component of MeTA is dedicated civil society support managed by the MeTA International Secretariat since March 2008. Two consultants with experience in the medicines field and in working with civil society, governments, and industry around access to medicines, transparency, and accountability issues were hired to develop skills building workshops, the first of which was held in Uganda in February 2008, with the second in the Philippines in June 2008. These will be followed by: country-based activities by civil society organisations (CSOs) in the MeTA pilot countries, and a global feedback meeting during early 2010, where the lessons learned can be discussed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made for future work.

 

A brief summary of the Uganda meeting illustrates MeTA capacity building strategies. Part of the first day was spent in a series of introduction exercises to encourage people to get to know each other. As this was meant to be a highly participatory workshop, particular attention was placed on identifying the skills and experience of the participants, through developing short descriptions of each participant to be part of the "gallery of experts" that was placed on a wall in the workshop room throughout the week. This helped to affirm the more than 280 years of experience in the medicines and transparency fields that participants brought into the room. Two sessions helped explain the overall MeTA process. The workshop followed a similar pattern throughout most of the week, with initial knowledge sharing sessions first thing in the morning, followed by a skills development session. In the afternoon, an open space period enabled participants to share experience and for the coverage of issues that emerged during other sessions. This was followed by a final session each day for participants to work in country groups to analyse the country situation and identify possible actions upon their return home. A series of field visits halfway through the week provided an opportunity for participants to test some skills and to explore issues of transparency and accountability with key institutions working in the pharmaceutical supply chain in Uganda.

Development Issues: 

Health, Rights.

Key Points: 

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS in developing countries, but antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are available to only 300,000 of the 5-6 million people currently in need of them. By 2015, WHO figures indicate, an estimated 10.5 million lives could be saved every year by expanding access to existing interventions for infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and non-communicable diseases. WHO cites the following central barriers preventing people from accessing essential medicine:

  • Medicines are unaffordable to many people; ARVs and artemisinin-based anti-malaria medicines are particularly expensive.
  • It is estimated that half of all medicines are inappropriately prescribed, dispensed, or sold, and that half of all patients fail to take their medicine properly.
  • Health financing mechanisms leave households responsible for the cost of medicines, and the economically poorest and sickest are the least able to pay.
  • Failures at any point of a country's supply system can lead to shortages of medicines; inefficient procurement systems have been found to pay up to twice the global market price for essential medicines.
  • The quality of medicines varies greatly. One-third of WHO member states either have no regulatory authority or only limited capacity to regulate the market.
  • Over 90% of medical research and development (R&D) focuses on the medical conditions of the richest 20% of the global population.
Partner Text: 

The UK Department for International Development (DFID) is providing initial funding. Other partners include governments, global and national civil society organisations, pharmaceutical and other business interests, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank.

Contact Information: 
Source: 

Emails from Andrew Chetley and Deepthi Wickremasinghe to The Communication Initiative on November 27 2008 and February 2 2009, respectively; and the MeTA website, accessed on December 17 2008.

The Communication Initiative Network and Partnership

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Featured

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Democracy and Governance

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News/Information

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Economic Development

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Digital

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Awards

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Print

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Radio

"[W]hile technology has the potential to amplify citizens' voices, it must be accompanied by clear political goals and other factors to increase their clout."

Drawing upon case studies from 9 programmes around the world and a citizen participation theory of change, this case study from the United States (US)-based National...

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Author: Nervious Siantombo, August 5 2014 - Citizen participation is a critical element in the development of Zambia’s agriculture sector, which is the mainstay of the majority of the country’s population.

Begun with the first National Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Assessment in 2009, this ongoing series of country reports assesses media development based upon a wider United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) initiative to assess the strengths and weaknesses of national media sectors across the globe using a...

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Author: Haider Al-Safi, July 3 2014 - As news came in earlier this month that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) had taken Iraq's second largest city, Mosul, I turned on my TV and satellite...

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This research briefing discusses the impact of Sema Kenya, BBC Media Action's national radio and television debate...

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Television

This BBC Media Action programme provides vulnerable communities with information on emergency services and advice on living amidst disaster and working towards recovery. It is a two-way communication programme, also aiming to give affected people "the opportunity to voice their concerns, express their needs, share their stories and hold...

Begun with the first National Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Assessment in 2009, this ongoing series of country reports assesses media development based upon a wider United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) initiative to assess the strengths and weaknesses of national media sectors across the globe using a...

© Birzeit University MDC

This report, available in English and Arabic, aims to inform and support the development of Palestine’s media sector through the conduct of a comprehensive assessment of the media environment, based on international legal standards and good practice.

Author: Haider Al-Safi, July 3 2014 - As news came in earlier this month that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) had taken Iraq's second largest city, Mosul, I turned on my TV and satellite...

Author: Ismael Saadat, June 11 2014 - "Sir, I have a request. As a future president of Afghanistan, please make sure we are no longer killed for political reasons. Let us die our natural deaths.”

"Where geography, poverty and lack of infrastructure make face-to-face interaction between disparate communities difficult, media can play a vital role in connecting these groups and in national debates on governance."

This research briefing discusses the impact of Sema Kenya, BBC Media Action's national radio and television debate...

This research report followed a BBC Media Action training in Sierra Leone in October and November of 2012 on election reporting for journalists of the International Radio Network. "The aim was to encourage impartial, fair and accurate reporting. These mentors trained local journalists working at International Radio Network (IRN) stations....BBC...

"...[T]he study found that listening to Sajha Sawal was significantly associated with an increase in political participation. How much a person was exposed to Sajha Sawal was also a factor: the greater the exposure, the greater the increase in political participation and discussion."

"What constitutes good evidence is currently subject to intense debate within the international development community. This briefing shares the findings of a review of such methods used to evaluate the impact of media and media assistance on governance outcomes."

"This policy briefing examines the role for communication in climate change adaptation in seven Asian countries."

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News Media

This BBC Media Action programme provides vulnerable communities with information on emergency services and advice on living amidst disaster and working towards recovery. It is a two-way communication programme, also aiming to give affected people "the opportunity to voice their concerns, express their needs, share their stories and hold...

Author: Bidhya Chapagain, August 4 2014 - Stories about violence against women in Nepal are, sadly, not rare. Since my schooldays, I’ve heard of women beaten by in-laws or taking their own lives because they could no longer stand the abuse.

But I also vividly recall other stories I heard as a girl. That of a...

Begun with the first National Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Assessment in 2009, this ongoing series of country reports assesses media development based upon a wider United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) initiative to assess the strengths and weaknesses of national media sectors across the globe using a...

© Birzeit University MDC

This report, available in English and Arabic, aims to inform and support the development of Palestine’s media sector through the conduct of a comprehensive assessment of the media environment, based on international legal standards and good practice.

Author: Haider Al-Safi, July 3 2014 - As news came in earlier this month that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) had taken Iraq's second largest city, Mosul, I turned on my TV and satellite...

Author: Abosede Olowoyeye, February 14 2014 - It was a typical Sunday morning. I was in the car driving to church and happily humming a tune to myself. But then, as I took a turn off the highway, I found the road ahead blocked - cordoned off for some high-level government official to pass.

Now road blocks and...

Author: Ismael Saadat, June 11 2014 - "Sir, I have a request. As a future president of Afghanistan, please make sure we are no longer killed for political reasons. Let us die our natural deaths.”

"Where geography, poverty and lack of infrastructure make face-to-face interaction between disparate communities difficult, media can play a vital role in connecting these groups and in national debates on governance."

This research briefing discusses the impact of Sema Kenya, BBC Media Action's national radio and television debate...

This research report followed a BBC Media Action training in Sierra Leone in October and November of 2012 on election reporting for journalists of the International Radio Network. "The aim was to encourage impartial, fair and accurate reporting. These mentors trained local journalists working at International Radio Network (IRN) stations....BBC...

"...[T]he study found that listening to Sajha Sawal was significantly associated with an increase in political participation. How much a person was exposed to Sajha Sawal was also a factor: the greater the exposure, the greater the increase in political participation and discussion."

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