A study of 312 untreated and 303 HAART-initiating patients to determine whether HAART is related to sexual risk taking in Côte d'Ivoire. At enrolment, unprotected sex was higher among untreated patients (P = 0.014). During follow-up, risk taking was similar (P = 0.484) as a result of an increase in unprotected sex among treated patients (from 20.4 to 30.1%, P < 0.0001) and stability among untreated patients (from 27.0 to 28.8%, P = 0.301). HAART appeared to be associated with sexual risk taking.