C-Picks 20 - SBCC to Prevent HIV, Change Gender Norms, and Improve Women's Health

Date: 
October 12, 2011

C-Picks
Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC)
Issue 20 | October 12 2011

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A collaboration between C-Change, supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and The Communication Initiative.

SBCC to Prevent HIV, Change Gender Norms, and Improve Women's Health

C-Picks #20 highlights communication tools, strategies, and interventions that aim to change individual behaviours and the larger social context in order to prevent HIV, change gender norms, and improve reproductive and maternal health. Strengthening the capacity of local organisations to carry out SBCC is a critical component.

The tools include those developed by C-Change in Namibia, where the project developed A Participatory Quality Improvement Process for SBCC Programs in HIV Prevention and Any Health Area for use with local organisations that design, implement, and monitor health interventions; and C-Change's Community Conversation Toolkit for HIV Prevention (in Siswati) for use in Swaziland. This tool to mobilise communities for HIV prevention has been adapted to different cultural contexts and local languages across Southern Africa. This version and the other language versions of the toolkit are available on C-Hub ( #7948, #8007, #8008, #8009, #8010, #8012 and #8013). Other tools highlighted in this issue include the Gender Scales Compendium, developed by C-Change to assess gender-related attitudes and beliefs and evaluate the success of interventions incorporating gender approaches.




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In This Issue

PARTICIPATORY HIV PREVENTION TOOLS

1. C-Change Namibia's Approach to SBCC Capacity Strengthening: A Participatory Quality Improvement Process for SBCC Programs and Group Sessions on HIV Prevention and in Any Health Area

2. Community Conversation Toolkit for HIV Prevention (in Siswati /Swaziland)

GENDER TRANSFORMATION: ASSESSMENT AND COMMUNICATION TOOLS

3. Compendium of Gender Scales

4. Engaging Boys and Men in Gender Transformation: A Spiritual Supplement for Facilitating the Men As Partners® Group Education Manual in Christian Settings

5. Engaging Boys and Men in Gender Transformation: The Group Education Manual

SBCC TO IMPROVE REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL HEALTH

6. Challenge and Change: Integrating the Challenge of Gender Norms and Sexuality in a Maternal Health Program

7. Influence of Gender Measures on Maternal and Child Health in Africa

8. The Women, Girls, and Gender Equality Principle of the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI): Assessment of the GHI Plus Country Strategies

9. Synchronizing Gender Strategies: A Cooperative Model for Improving Reproductive Health and Transforming Gender Relations




PARTICIPATORY HIV PREVENTION TOOLS

1. C-Change Namibia's Approach to SBCC Capacity Strengthening: A Participatory Quality Improvement Process for SBCC Programs and Group Sessions on HIV Prevention and in Any Health Area

Compendium C-Change Namibia has developed tools and uses a participatory approach to assist organisations with improving the quality of their social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) programming for HIV prevention and any health area. The tools include two checklists and a recommendation form for use by quality improvement (QI) teams. The checklists are based on minimum quality standards for SBCC programmes in three areas: planning and design, implementation of group sessions and other activities, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). A QI team employs these checklists during office visits and observational and support visits to group sessions, then comes to consensus on agreed-upon actionable recommendations on strengthening the programme. Visit C-Hub to download.

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2. Community Conversation Toolkit for HIV Prevention

Compendium The Community Conversation Toolkit for HIV Prevention (Swaziland version), developed by the C Change project and funded by USAID, comprises six materials (community mobilisers' cards, role-play cards, storytelling finger puppets, promotional proverbs and best kept secrets throw boxes, promotional playing cards, and dialogue buttons) along with a facilitator's guide and is used to mobilise communities for HIV Prevention. Translated into Siswati from a version originally developed in South Africa, it is launching October 2011.

Pretested with intended audiences and in close consultation with National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA) and local implementing partners, the toolkit was adapted by: using local Siswati proverbs for the throwbox; revising artwork to depict the local Swazi context; adding components to the toolkit that address male circumcision and condom use; and integrating existing resources from local partners. Swaziland is the sixth country in Southern Africa to adapt the toolkit, which seeks to address key drivers of the epidemic (e.g., concurrency, cross-generational sex, gender-based violence, and alcohol abuse).


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GENDER TRANSFORMATION: ASSESSMENT AND COMMUNICATION TOOLS

3. Compendium of Gender Scales

Compendium Developed by C-Change under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s direction, this is a tool to assess gender-related attitudes and beliefs and evaluate the success of interventions incorporating gender approaches. The Compendium comprises eight scales that measure beliefs, attitudes, and practices relating to issues such as couples communication, decision-making about sex, household and parental responsibilities, gender-based violence, and societal acceptance of inferior roles for women and girls.

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4. Engaging Boys and Men in Gender Transformation: A Spiritual Supplement for Facilitating the Men As Partners® Group Education Manual in Christian Settings

This July 2011 manual from EngenderHealth and LifeLine/ChildLine with funding support from the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was created to: 1) stimulate conversation and deeper reflection on topics from the Men As Partners® (MAP) Group Education Manual with Christian audiences, 2) promote gender transformation through biblical and spiritual discussion, 3) support facilitators in dealing with difficult questions, of a religious or spiritual nature, from training participants, and 4) give facilitators religious and spiritual justifications for gender equity and equality.

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5. Engaging Boys and Men in Gender Transformation: The Group Education Manual

From EngenderHealth's ACQUIRE project and Promundo, this is an educational manual for working with men to question non-equitable views about masculinity and develop more positive attitudes to prevent unhealthy behaviours that put them and their partners and families at risk. It can also be used to train facilitators who will implement workshop activities with groups of men. Published in January 2011, the manual highlights the importance of linking educational activities to action.

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SBCC TO IMPROVE REPRODUCTIVE AND MATERNAL HEALTH

6. Challenge and Change: Integrating the Challenge of Gender Norms and Sexuality in a Maternal Health Program

This April 2011 report from the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) CARE and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) documents some of the processes undertaken to integrate gender and sexuality factors into a maternal and neonatal health (MNH) project in Uttar Pradesh, India. The behaviour change communication (BCC) initiative used interpersonal communication (IPC) and community participation strategies in an effort to spark change. One recommendation that emerged from the training workshops with all project and partners staff: "find ways to increase communication between spouses to foster a more enabling environment for change....In addition to working directly with husbands to increase their knowledge and enhance their attitudes and behaviour with regard to health and gender issues, some MNH staff felt that the program needed more community-level components of social change interventions - to bring the debate about men's role in MNH care and gender relations to the whole community. They believed that addressing these issues at a community level as well as in smaller groups (e.g., through VHSCs [village health and sanitation committees], mothers' committees and home visits) would make the interventions more effective."

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7. Influence of Gender Measures on Maternal and Child Health in Africa

From MEASURE Evaluation, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), this August 2011 report explores the associations between gender measures and several maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes in Africa. It "focuses on areas of gender equality known to affect health outcomes for women and children which are available in the DHS data, specifically, women's autonomy within the context of household and financial decision making and social norms regarding attitudes towards wife beating and refusing sex...That gender equity measures were significant in some countries, even after controlling for education and wealth, suggests that programs and policy should facilitate empowerment in addition to focusing on educating girls and reducing poverty."

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8. The Women, Girls, and Gender Equality Principle of the U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI): Assessment of the GHI Plus Country Strategies

This June 2011 report from the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) assesses how countries are responding to a United States (US) Global Health Initiative (GHI) principle that addresses women, girls, and gender equality. One of the principle's 10 key elements includes utilising multiple community-based programmatic approaches, such as behaviour change communication (BCC), community mobilisation, advocacy, and engagement of community leaders/role models to improve health for women and girls. The research found that: "Some of the country strategies went beyond viewing women and girls only as beneficiaries of health services, focusing on them as actors and decision-makers and/or on changing gender norms. These strategies addressed the broader gender issues that impact women's and girls' health..."

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9. Synchronizing Gender Strategies: A Cooperative Model for Improving Reproductive Health and Transforming Gender Relations

This concept paper, published in September 2010, explores gender integration approaches to sexual and reproductive health programmes and policies developed by the RESPOND project at EngenderHealth and the BRIDGE Project at the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) in consultation with the Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG) of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The document raises the following question: "Can gender inequities and norms that harm health be best addressed by working with men and women in a coordinated or synchronized way?" It includes case studies of organisations from Peru, Ethiopia, South Africa, Senegal, Brazil, and India to illustrate 3 types of programmes as well as other organisations currently doing innovative work in this field. The study suggests that gender synchronised programmes view all actors in society in relation to each other and seek to identify or create shared values among women and men, within the range of roles they play (i.e., mothers-in-law, fathers, wives, brothers, caregivers, and so on) - values that promote human rights, mutual support for health, non-violence, equality, and gender justice. One example of how gender synchronisation may improve development and health outcomes: An intervention for women combining a microfinance programme with participatory training on understanding HIV infection, gender norms, domestic violence, and sexuality and treatment improved its results by electing and training female leaders to engage men to address male norms related to gender and HIV, holding events with village chiefs, police, schools, and soccer clubs.

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C-Picks and SBCC

Please visit the C-Picks website for more resources and information about social and behaviour change communication (SBCC).

C-Picks continues to seek new knowledge and experiences in SBCC - case studies, strategic thinking, support materials, and other relevant documentation. Please contact cchange@comminit.com



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C-Picks, supported by C-Change and implemented by The Communication Initiative, is an e-magazine that highlights social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) case studies, reports, analyses, and resources in the health sector (HIV and AIDS, family planning and reproductive health, malaria, and maternal and antenatal health).



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Communication for Change (C-Change) is a USAID-funded project to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) as an integral part of development efforts in health, environment, and civil society. C-Change works with global, regional, and local partners to apply communication approaches supported by evidence-based strategies, state-of-the-art capacity strengthening, and cutting-edge research. C-Change also works to strengthen the capacity of local organisations to incorporate SBCC in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of their programmes, thus ensuring sustained local knowledge and skills. Please visit the C-Change website. To contact C-Change, please email cchange@fhi360.org

The Communication Initiative (The CI) network is an online space for sharing the experiences of, and building bridges between, the people and organisations engaged in or supporting communication as a fundamental strategy for economic and social development and change. It does this through a process of initiating dialogue and debate and giving the network a stronger, more representative and informed voice with which to advance the use and improve the impact of communication for development. This process is supported by web-based resources of summarised information and several electronic publications, as well as online research, review, and discussion platforms providing insight into communication for development experiences. Please see The CI website. To contact The CI, please email info@comminit.com


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This publication is made possible by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of Agreement No. GPO-A-00-07-00004-00. The contents are the responsibility of The Communication Initiative and the C-Change project and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.