Education: human resources, hardware, infrastructure, local content, open source software, knowledge management, distance education, partnerships.
The goals of Cambodia’s ICT in education policy are:
- To increase access of all citizens to both formal and nonformal basic education, using ICT as a primary learning and teaching tool;
- To improve the quality of basic education and support lifelong and independent learning; and
- To ensure Cambodia’s ability to complete in an interconnected world, by ensuring a workforce skilled in ICT is available for employment in a knowledge-based society.
Title: Policy and Strategies on Information and Communication Technology in Education in Cambodia
Publication: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport
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Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS)
UNESCO Bangkok - ICT in Education: Cambodia
Digital Review 2005/6 Asia Pacific: .kh Cambodia
International Telecommunications Union - ICT Country Case Study: Cambodia
IDRC: Community-Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia (cUAPc): Pilots to Policy Research
While the net enrolment ratio at the primary level is 88.9 percent, it is only 20 percent at the secondary level, the lowest in the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Though the minimum contact time in schools has been set at 800 hours per year, many schools in fact operate at 500 hours or less, particularly in cases necessitating a double or triple shift.
ICT Developments in Teacher Training
Since 2003, students in teacher colleges have been required to attend ICT courses 2 hours per week. Computer availability in teacher colleges increased significantly during 2003, and all colleges now have a computer lab. More than 300 of the 600 teacher trainers had undergone training in basic ICT skills by September 2004.
ICT in Higher Education
The majority of higher education establishments are located in urban areas and possess internet connectivity and good ICT facilities. ICT-related courses are among the most popular subjects.
Non-Formal Education and Distance Learning
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been primarily responsible for developing the ICT infrastructure and Khmer content necessary for non-formal education and distance learning. Many rural Cambodians receive the majority of their information through television and radio, which have not been fully leveraged for educational purposes.
ICT Readiness in Schools
Seventy-five percent of secondary schools in Cambodia have no power supply. Of state schools, six percent of lower-secondary and 35 percent of upper-secondary schools have one or two computers, while eight schools have greater than 10 computers. Many private schools offer computer classes.
Strategy For Promoting the Use of ICT in Education
The medium-term objectives from 2004 to 2010 include: to develop an ICT infrastructure and provide hardware for all levels of educational institutes and centers for the purposes of education and training; to prioritise human resource development to meet the requirements of the ICT and education sectors; to use ICT as a teaching and learning tool to promote skills in research, communication, problem solving and innovative thinking; and to raise administrative efficiency through the use of ICT for educational management.
Human Resource Development
The medium-term strategies for human resource development include: the establishment of courses for ICT professionals in higher education; the training of all teacher trainers in ICT use for professional development and administration; updating the primary and secondary school teacher-training curriculum to include ICT use for professional development, administration, teaching and learning; promotion of ICT-based research and independent/lifelong learning activities in all educational institutions; and training a minimum of one staff member from each educational institution in computer repair and maintenance.
Hardware and Infrastructure
Medium-term strategies for hardware and infrastructure include the equipping of teacher training colleges with infrastructure and hardware necessary to allow internet access; provision of a power supply and adequate hardware to secondary schools to allow connectivity and access to ICT; the provision of a mobile ICT learning unit in areas without connectivity; the promotion of community learning/information centres; and establishment of educational television and radio stations.
Development of Local Contents and Use of Open Source Software
Medium-term strategies include encouraging open source software use; promoting Khmer content development for formal, distance, and equivalency education programmes; and promoting operating system development in the Khmer language.
Use of ICT in Schools
Medium-term strategies include the promotion of ICT use to enhance teaching and learning in foreign languages, science, math, and social science; the modification of secondary school curriculum to incorporate ICT use in above subjects where possible; the provision of ICT as a life skills course; and the ethical use of ICT in schools.
Knowledge Management System
Medium-term strategies include establishing a National Clearing House online for the dissemination of Khmer and foreign language teaching and learning resources; and providing links to a variety of educational resources in Cambodia and worldwide.
ICT Applications for Open Schools and Distance Education
Access to primary and secondary education will be expanded through the promotion of ICT-enabled Open Schools. The current five year education plan will create open schools, distance education, and equivalency education in order to provide education in areas where conventional schooling is not available; learner-choice in how they want to learn; an opportunity for school drop-outs to proceed with their education; and the opportunity to combine education with work and learning.
ICT Use in Universities
ICT should be used to leverage the scarce human resource capacity of universities, and also connect learners to virtual learning resources around the world. A cyber campus consortium will be created to promote ICT use in teaching, learning, research, and administration; digitise Khmer language books and translate others into Khmer; and link to virtual universities elsewhere.
Cooperation and Partnership
Medium-term strategies include the promotion of cooperation between NGOs, national and international organisations, and individuals in order to build on opportunities for ICT development in education; and the building of partnerships with civil society and private organisations for the purpose of sharing ICT resources.