6.1 Conditions for Internet use in the Namibian context

In my discussion on findings and analysis of the results from my study, I will, as I mentioned in chapter three make references to the issues set up by Bridges.org, as determining factors regarding real access to technology, as supplementary tools for analysis.


In Namibia, there are interesting and promising developments in the area of ICT. SchoolNet is a locally initiated project, aiming at computerising and connecting Namibia's 1500 schools to the Internet before 2005.[66] This project is successfully on its way, having connected 15% of Namibia's primary and secondary schools, connecting approximately two schools per week. Being about 50% funded by local business and corporations and 50% funded by national and international foreign donors, the project seems to have a national base which is a crucial prerequisite for a sustainable future of any project. More importantly than the financial sustainability is, perhaps, the human capacity building connected with the project. Following the initial instalment and computer training by the SchoolNet technicians in a school on location, the training is performed locally on a peer-to-peer basis. This setting consolidates the ground for sustainable computer and Internet capacity. Joris Komen, Director of SchoolNet Namibia, stressed that e-mail communication is a major force behind the self-training and development of local knowledge in the use of Internet. Enhanced interpersonal communication and awareness of the potential of Internet as a powerful tool are great incentives for individuals to further explore Internet as a medium.[67] Moreover the schools have to sign contracts to assure that students gain access. Joris Komen stated:

"Schools don't get Internet for free. The price is primary access for students to technology".

In cooperation with NANSU and the Polytechnic, SchoolNet is setting up a communication resource centre in central Windhoek. It is planned to be self sustained once the equipment is in place.[68] "Kids on the Block" is a capacity building and vocational training programme of SchoolNet Namibia supported by contributions from the corporate, public and development sectors. Computer and Internet training, management, technical and marketing expertise has been provided, to young unemployed kids. This volunteer programme aims at assisting schools and community-based organisations in Namibia in the practical implementation of computers and the Internet in schools and community-based organisations. There are also possibilities for the trained volunteers to eventually be employed professionally in the regular labour-market.The "Kids on the Block" volunteers are basically paid in kind, (sugar and jeans) contributed by the private sector. Joris Komen, Director of SchoolNet Namibia, claims that the volunteer project is successful because it is young-driven and based on incentives.[69] The two major reasons behind the success of the whole SN project, according to Joris Komen, are the facts that the project is non-political and in addition is empowering youth with Internet training.

Open and distance learning

Other national and international initiatives in the area of information and communication technology (ICT), regarding Internet based distance learning, also promise an interesting future for the possibility of students accessing Internet in the coming years.

Namibia College of Open Learning (NAMCOL) is an educational institution providing courses for adults and out-of-school youths. In my interview with Erving Williams, IT development responsible at NAMCOL, I learned that the institution is about to initiate Internet based long-distance education, though they are currently in a planning stage, (August 2001). Namibia College of Open Learning is also a part of NOLNet.

The Namibian Open Learning Network, NOLNet is a network comprised of four major Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions in Namibia. They are Centre for External Studies at the University of Namibia, Centre for Open and Lifelong Learning at the Polytechnic of Namibia, Namibian College of Open Learning and National Institute for Educational Development. NOLNet, is currently in the process of establishing open learning centres in the capital cities of all 13 political regions (plus some more) in Namibia, equipped with reference books, photocopiers, computers, and in some cases, Internet access. A grant from the European Union, ending in December 2002, facilitates the establishment of the network. Access to reference libraries and self-study facilities will be free of charge, but for services such as photo copying, printing and Internet use, there will be minimal charges. NOLNet, which is a trust, will cover the charges should the collected fees locally not cover the running cost of use of the facilities. The cost of telecommunication was mentioned by Mr Ed Du Vivier, as being an obstacle to sustainablilty in the future.[70]

To use Internet as a tool for distance learning and/or used as an instrument for learning, communication and information in general, make particular sensein a country like Namibia. Internet has extraordinary potential where conventional means of communication are facing infra structural constraints. Vast geographical distances between people as well a lack of communication infrastructure, including roads, transportation, telephone lines and electricity, make transportation expensive and complicated for the individual. In this respect, Namibia seems to be made for leap-frogging[71] and for taking advantage of the new technologies. A major obstacle is the high cost of technology.Indeed, technological infrastructure needs to be implemented to broaden the electronic highways. Today, the possibilities of getting, and staying online in Namibia, are rather limited. The cable network needs to be expanded for this limiting factor to disappear. The SchoolNet project is expanding the possibilities for sustainability and access to electricity and telecommunication in the rural areas by installing solar power plants and satellites.[72]

Some examples of government ICT activities

The Government of Namibia via for instance the Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture (MBESC) and the Ministry of Higher Education (MHE), is involved in many projects concerning the development of ICT.

There are EU-based projects under the Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture concerning Community Development Centres and multipurpose Centres.[73]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Information and Broadcasting (MFAIB) is also allocating funds for fee-based Multipurpose Community Centres, one in each of the 13 regions, containing computers, internet AV-equipment and photo-copiers.[74]

The Government is also promoting ICT development in other ways, such as through the Strategic Plan 2001-2006 of the Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture. According to the Plan, "equitable access" is a national priority area. Under "Ministry objectives" the text reads as follows:

"To ensure that learners and school communities have access to, and use, modern information technology and communication technology and relevant sources of information."[75]

The Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture and the National Institute for Educational Development have proposed guidelines for computer literacy for students to be incorporated into existing courses.

The objectives of the Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture are quite in line with a national development where ICT play an important role in education. It is a positive and essential platform for a future in the direction of increased access.

Physical access and political will

Physical access is closely related to economic factors and constraints. Economic resources and political will most likely entail physical access to technology. Currently the major physical infra structural constraint for increased connectivity, is a lack of lines. This was confirmed among others by Ritva Niskala, NOLNet librarian at the Community Library Service who claimed that private lines were more efficient than the lines of large institutions such as for instance UNAM and the Ministry of Basic Education.[76] According to Rui Correia, Managing Editor at MISA, the main complications and limitations regarding Internet communication in the region, are system breakdowns which can last two weeks at the time and lines that function irregularly. Local personnel are subsequently shut off and disconnected until the breakdown and/or lines are repaired. This makes the Internet activities rather vulnerable to external infra structural factors. This vulnerability can in some ways be outweighed by the use of other media, such as fax and phones.[77]

In the case of Namibia there is political will to facilitate the wide spread use of ICTs, though factors such as financial constraints and "competing" national priorities, may slow down the process. There is also the concern, agrees Dr Robert West at MBESC and Wilma Deetlefs at MFAIB, that all ICT projects; state initiatives, international donor organisations, national and international NGOs, private enterprise and others, combined lack a certain amount of national co-ordination.[78]

The best political intentions can be hampered by harsh realities of economic and structural constraints. If the nation-state is not in a position to "control" development in all aspects (and this is certainly the case in most states), the risk is high for ad hoc, short-term projects lacking sustainable long-term potential. In addition the risk is high for a deficit of nationally structured and regionally distributed development and, perhaps of more concern, a potential deficit of democracy. Jan Nederveen Pieterse (2001) discusses this phenomenon as a problematic aspect of participatory development, namely the involvement of numerous NGOs in development projects. This can partly be applied to the Namibian situation with multiple non-state agents:

"Participatory development is an indication of a larger change that is taking place in political systems and cultures, the disempowerment of states and political systems, the emergence of sub politics, social movements, lobbying and special interests. Informalisation and liberalisation transfer responsibilities from governments to NGOs and foment the emergence of parallel structures, (for instance) in welfare and health. Thus in several sub-Saharan African countries part of the healthcare and welfare sector has been subcontracted to foreign-funded NGOs. What have not been replaced are the procedures of accountability. The new democratic culture of which participatory development is part has a new democratic deficit".[79] The disempowerment of states through informalisation and liberalisation transferring responsibilities from governments to numerous NGOs, may lead to a deficit in accountability, transparency and democracy.

Contrary to the positive signs of political will to increase Internet access and literacy in Namibia, the government's advertising boycott and blocking of access to the web site of the Namibian, at government departments is signalling a lowering of the levels of access and of tolerance against criticism.

The local economic environment

Technological components, like solar power units and satellites, are likely to constitute future infra structural vulnerability. The cost of maintenance will be continuously high, even if the quality of the units is high. Know-how in connection with maintenance is also an important factor. This refers to all infra structure such as computer hard and software and power units. Subsequently, material and maintenance and know-how need to be sustained on a long-term basis. Even with access to computers and electricity, the Internet connection keeps costing money and craving electricity. The American volunteer teacher organisation, WorldTeach, participated in an eight-week teaching programme run by SchoolNet the summer of 2001, concerning various aspects of Internet training. According to one teacher who took part of the programme in the village of Tsumeb in the north of Namibia, during the eight weeks she spent in the village, the school never had access to Internet. The cost of staying connected was too high, according to the responsible villagers, even though they had physical access.[80] This fact was also confirmed by an interview with Ritva Niskala, librarian at the Community Library Service in Windhoek, who stated that especially the northern areas of Namibia have problems in affording the connectivity. She also pointed out the lack of sufficient lines for telecommunications.[81]

This is a problem SN is well aware of and trying to solve by striving for fruitful agreements with the telecom industry in Namibia to lower the costs of subscription as much as possible.

A final constraint worth mentioning is general poverty among the population. If computers and other infrastructure are installed in an environment where the average person does not have access to the basic necessities of life, like easily accessible water, health care, electricity and other components of a descent life, there may be a discrepancy between the needs of the local population and the new technology. People might find it difficult to see the benefits of the technology. According to Joris Komen, the SchoolNet project has not experienced any major problems connected to the security of equipment. The explanation for this, according to Komen is to be found in the fact that a crucial part of SN strategy is to educate the local youngsters in the use of Internet, and then knowledge is passed on from peer to peer. The responsibility for the actual equipment and its use always rests with the local people, the students and teachers. Therefore, the tools of the new technology are owned by the people locally. And that may well be the key to future sustainability.

6.2 The Namibian students' access to Internet

The IT landscape changes every minute, and in Namibia it changes very fast due to many projects involving the medium, at different levels of Namibian society. Still, most of the students in my focus groups claimed to have little or no access. I learnt during my study, that Internet access in fact is rather extensive in Windhoek, and at several locations one can access Internet frequently and for free. By this I propose to say that the IT awareness of my target group not necessarily reflects the reality of the IT landscape. So, at some level, the students may perceive Internet access more limited that it necessarily is. This of course, is an interesting aspect in itself. IT is a relatively new medium and IT- development may have occurred so fast students have partly failed to realise the actual degree of Internet access nor even the potential of that very access. I will not investigate this relative discrepancy between actual access and perception of access in this paper. My main point here is that I will focus on the students' perceptions and description of access as well as of any other issues addressed in the focus group interviews.[82]

Physical access

"Only the elite has Internet access"(student at UNAM).

The students at UNAM and the Polytechnic, claimed there were few computers with Internet access in their respective institutions, ten at UNAM and three at the Polytechnic. Subsequently, the waiting lists were very long for access to the computers. There is additional access in connection with courses and departments where use of computers is integrated, such as the School of Engineering and Information Technology at the Polytechnic and the Faculty of Science at UNAM. At the Institute of Higher Education the students had no general access.The students at the Windhoek College of Education said there was one computer with Internet connection in the library, but one student stated

"The librarians don't know how to use it so it's kept covered up".

The WVTC had no computer with Internet access available to the students, according to the focus group participants.

At UNAM and PN the students use the libraries to access Internet. They also go to Internet cafés to some extent. The Internet cafés are quite numerous in the city of Windhoek. The students at IHE knew of many places of free access and subsequently claimed they accessed Internet "everywhere"! By contrast the Students at WCE and WVTC claimed they didn't use Internet much. The students estimated that about 5% of the students used Internet cafés. When I asked if they knew about the resource centre which SchoolNet and NANSO is putting up in the city centre, one student at WCE exclaimed:

"Schoolnet, you could be speaking Chinese! What is schoolnet?"

It is certainly a challenge also to inform about access to information!

Some students claimed not to be using Internet at all and some as often as three, four times a week. Again there was a distinct difference between UNAM, PTN, IHE and WCE & W VTC, where students at the three first institutions used the Internet three, four times a week and students at the latter schools, basically not at all.

The technology was to some extent physically available at most educational institutions but not always accessible to the students. There was physical access to the staff at most institutions, but the capacity to use IT seemed to be lacking for instance at the WCE. Knowledge of where to access Internet subsequently varied widely in the focus groups. At the IHE, the students informed me of six locations in Windhoek with free access to Internet.[83] I found it very interesting that these students were so well informed. I did not receive this information from any other participants in the study.

Affordability and socio-cultural factors

There are several Internet cafés in Windhoek and they are used quite frequently by the students, especially for e-mail communication. The major problem is the high cost for use, about 20 Namibian Dollars per hour, (25 SKr), which is very expensive for most students. Subsequently, cafés are not practical for effective studying and research which require a lot of time. The cost of buying computers is also very high, and most students do not have access in their homes. Internet subscriptions are also very expensive and very few students can afford it. Computers, and Internet use, at the educational institutions are free of charge, but at WCE the students claimed they had to pay for printing costs (like at most universities) and basically bring their own cartridge, which is very expensive indeed!

The varying levels of access seem to correlate to the variance of social realities of the students. In general, students at institutions with higher fees of tuition, UNAM, PN and IHE knew more of how and where to access Internet, than the students at WCE and WVTC. This implicates that students who can afford to attend the former educational institutions, come from social backgrounds that in some way stimulate knowledge of and facilitate actual Internet access. Only one student, in my study, had private access in her home. This individual is a student at a relatively expensive, private institution for higher education.

Relevant content

The students mainly use the Internet for e-mail communication. They also use the Internet for research and for reading local and global news. The answers suggest that interpersonal communication is prioritised before web browsing and information seeking, at present conditions. Internet used for e-mail communication provides relevant content for the students. Some students expressed scepticism about the general content on the web being controlled by western companies, the gatekeeper issue, i.e. who is in control of content? Still, they found the local newspaper sites relevant and considered international news sites important sources of information. Though English is not the first language of most students, all students in my study spoke fluent English, (which is the official language) the mother tongue and maybe one or two languages that are similar to the mother tongue. This fact makes the availability of the predominantly Anglophone Internet high to the Namibian students. The students found information published on the web relevant, and were well aware of the possibilities of using the net for finding information of their choice. The prime objective though, for using the Internet was as a tool interpersonal communication. And in constituting an excellent tool for communication, the Internet provides relevant content for the students.

Capacity and Trust

The pattern from the previous discussion continued in the respect of capacity. The students at UNAM, PTN and IHE had capacity to search the Web, and computer/Internet literacy was partly included in the curriculum, whereas students from WCE & WVTC lacked this capacity. The students of IHE were frequently using search engines such as Google and AltaVista, even though their limitation seemed to be search strategies.

In the discussion around the evaluation of information on the Internet, the students discussed the web version of local newspapers and if the information published on the Internet could be trusted. One student claimed that the local independent newspaper the Namibian, often was overly critical of government policy and further that:

"Journalists are the only ones in absolute power".

None of the students claimed they had considered evaluating the sources of information on web sites, excluding the local newspaper web sites. It seems to me that the students were quite unaware of the importance of evaluating sources, especially in connection with research. This could be due to the fact that the Internet is relatively new as a source for research and the aspect of a critical mind in connection with Internet research needs to be developed. All students were well aware of the political colour of the various national and local newspapers and some read both independent and government mouthpieces. Still, the students expressed a healthy critical attitude to the information they read in the local papers.

In terms of conventional media all students in my study read local newspapers, though many claimed it is too expensive to buy every day. Many have access to the newspapers in the school libraries, but at some libraries the newspapers arrived many days late. Many preferred the web version as it is cheaper and more up to date. The students also use TV and radio. The students who claimed to use Internet irregularly or not at all, were all using conventional media on a regular basis. Jorn Stabi, Webmaster at the Namibian, stated that the journalists of the newspaper use the Internet for research, though lack of time is a limiting factor. Research, even on the Internet, takes time. The possibilities for Internet to be used as an intermediary tool, based on the responses above, are subsequently relatively good, under the condition that newspapers and other conventional media continuously seek and publish information from the Internet and vice versa.

Communication with SASU head office

The overall contact with SASU head office ranged from little to none. Communication, when it occurred, entailed contact in person, by phone, fax and e-mail contact. Communication in some cases went via NANSO (Namibia National Student Organisation). At two of the institutions, Windhoek Vocational Training Centre and the Polytechnic, the students claimed they had no contact with SASU. The focus group students suggested the following uses for the SASU web site; information about educational issues, human rights alerts, contact with SASU and with the affiliates. The web page has a potential to be an important channel for information in the entire sub region. One focus group participant claimed that most students are unaware of the existence of the SASU web page.

In addition most students had never seen the paper copy of the students' newsletter, "The Student Voice". Distribution has been extremely sparse due to the high cost of distribution. All claimed a web version of the newsletter would be better and more effective, especially since, as one student said:

"SchoolNet is making the Internet relevant, even in the rural areas"

The challenge, one student observed, is to update and maintain the web page and publish a digital newsletter regularly.

6.3 SASU and Internet communication

The results of the questionnaire presented to the SASU affiliates during the communication workshop in July 2001 show that out of the seven affiliate offices represented and who filled in the form, only three claimed they had access to Internet at their affiliate office. Even though one could assume that organised students in general would be progressive in terms of the use of information technology, this proved not to be the case, at the level of the SASU activists. None of the executive council members, who filled in the questionnaire, knew how to create or maintain a website. These results do not exclude the use of e-mail by the representatives. In fact, most EC members claimed they used the Internet for e-mail communication on a more or less regular basis, even though access is not readily available, nor an Internet connection existing in the affiliate office. A question related to trust came up in the context of the executive council members using e-mail at their educational institutions. Some members claimed that their personal e-mail accounts could be controlled and checked by university staff, subsequently these students were reluctant to use e-mail at the universities.

This communication workshop constituted the last session of an intensive four-day meeting. Still, all the students participated actively in the open discussion and brainstorming concerning communication content, target groups and activities. It seemed like the communication strategy was a prioritised area of interest in general.

During this communication workshop, major target groups for SASU communication were defined. Apart from obvious target groups, such as the national member unions, student representatives' councils, student organisations globally as well as other relevant national and international NGOs and targets for lobbying, individual students were singled out as an important target group for information on issues such as education in general, students' rights, gender and high priority was also voiced for information regarding HIV/AIDS. Individual students are also important target groups for human rights action alerts. Students will take active part in protest campaigns, writing and sending protest letters to relevant political authorities and add to the essential regional networking through their contacts.

Among the objectives of the information and communication strategy would be; to activate students in the region, inform students on the relevant issues mentioned above, increase networking between national affiliates and individual students, increase knowledge of SASU in general and lobby towards relevant political bodies. Web site and e-mail communication was defined by the students as preferable channels for information for this purpose.

A crucial issue of regional concern is information about HIV/Aids, where the web page could be used as a channel for students to send in questions and comments around the issue. Advice and comments, solicited from expertise and from fellow students affected in one way or another, can be published to the benefit of everyone with access in the region, and in fact, globally.

The choice of Internet communication by the students is understandable in my opinion, at least on a theoretical basis, in the respect that it is a new, interesting medium with an obvious potential for regional and global communication. The possibility of Internet to be used as an autonomous publishing tool makes the Internet particularly relevant in the context of the students. To be able to bypass the traditional channels for information and communication entails enhanced possibilities for reaching the objectives with SASU communication activities. Information channelled in traditional media can be exposed to censorship, in contrast to information on the Internet. A web site version of a newspaper can become a lifeline and a guarantee of the right to freedom of expression. This is illustrated by the example of "the Namibian". In July 2001, the Namibian Government initiated an advertising boycott on "The Namibian", claiming the newspaper was too critical of government policies. The web version of the Namibian has a potential audience comprised of 25,000 - 30,000 Internet subscribers in Namibia and a definite 2000 e-mail subscribers all over the world. Though the Namibian government has blocked access to the paper's web site at government departments, and traffic has gone down since the boycott started, the government cannot block access completely and certainly not the possibility of publishing the web site.[84] The climate is getting tougher regarding press freedom and the freedom of speech. Eve Black, board member of the MISA national chapter in Namibia:

"Freedom of expression is coming under pressure. It's in our culture. But we have to speak up now!"[85]

When the climate is getting colder in terms of tolerance in general, the Internet becomes a crucial agent for the safeguarding of democracy in the ever on going war against intolerance, all forms of discrimination and violations of the rights to freedom of information and expression.

The problem is, as we have seen in my study, in the case of Namibia, individual access is presently very limited thus does not in itself constitute a solid base for the communication activities prioritised by SASU. In addition, of the affiliate representatives in the EC, only half had Internet access in the affiliate offices and few use e-mail on a daily basis.

Subsequently, the conditions for Internet communication may not be sufficiently solid for efficient dissemination of information on the crucial issues and objectives of communication in the SASU context, suggested by the students. At this particular point in time, the Internet can be considered an important complement to other media.

Access to Internet in the region will most likely continue to increase, and particularly in Namibia (and South Africa), the conditions for future Internet communication look bright due to the many promising initiatives in the area, paving the way for an increased and affordable access to Internet.

Therefore, building up a SASU web site and systematic use of e-mail for regional communication and networking is still strategically important. On the crucial issues mentioned above, any additional tool for information, communication and participation, is a step in the right direction.

6.4 The intermediary role of Internet

Most students in my study have access to conventional media. Information can be mediated to conventional media, students' organisations and individuals, and respectively be passed on from the same groups to the Internet nodes.[86] In this way, relevant issues like human rights and students' rights violations and other student related information, could be reported to a local node with Internet access, for instance the national affiliate, and passed on to the SASU web site, where it is published instantly.

From the web site, local, conventional media may publish the information where it would reach all with access to conventional media, including the students.

Information published in conventional media in the entire sub region can be channelled into the SASU web page, much as the MISA news exchange works today. MISA has set up a new-exchange service on the Internet. Local independent newspapers exchange news articles, features and other material, and in this way the Internet becomes beneficial to the readers of the newspapers. In addition, MISA is a member of Digital Freedom Network (DFN), an international NGO, which develops and promotes the use of Internet technology for human rights activism around the world.[87] Since 1997, DFN has increased awareness of human rights issues on the Internet, made technical information more readily available to activists, and provided an online voice to those not free to express themselves.

DFN gives technical assistance to activists by developing net-based campaigns free of charge and creating technology tutorials. It also publishes original news articles about human rights issues provided by other organisations. The possibilities and the potential benefit for NGOs, such as SASU, to join or cooperate with existing digital networks such as MISA and DFN, are enormous.

Equally, conventional media, such as local newspapers and billboards can actively seek and publish information from the web news exchange and the Internet in general. Moreover, since e-mail is frequently used by almost all students, a mailing list for the human rights alerts could be a good option. SASU's head office which could function as the spider in the middle of the web, could pick up information from the entire sub region and then transmit the information to local and regional mailing lists, whichever is most useful in every respective case. Thus Internet has a role to play even in a context where access to the medium is very limited. It is particularly important not to underestimate traditional media such as for instance notice boards for spreading information, in a context where other forms of media, not only Internet but newspapers, are relatively inaccessible and costly.

In the SASU context, the Internet is not yet in a position to take on the role as the main medium for information, but still it can function as an important and supplementary tool for information and communication.

66 Click here for SchoolNet NA website

67 Interview with Mr Joris Komen 010806, at SchoolNet facilities in Windhoek, Namibia.

68 Telephone interview with Haroldt Binda, Information Officer at NANSO, 010806.

69 Interview with Mr Joris Komen 010806, at SchoolNet facilities in Windhoek, Namibia

70 Interview with Ed Du Vivier, Advisor for Institutional Development at Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture of the Government of Namibia. At NAMCOL premises in Katutura, Namibia 010814.

71 "Leap-frogging" describes the potentials for countries to use the new ICTs as means to make large qualitative and quantitative leaps to bypass several 'traditional' technological and development steps.

72 The Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) will provide support ( SEK 17.9 million) for essential infrastructure and internet access development at 500 disadvantaged schools in Namibia over the next three years. The support is targeted towards installing Internet-connected Local Area Networks (LANs) at 500 schools, provide training and enable Internet usage (e-mail and web-browsing) by learners and teachers at the connected schools, imparting basic computer knowledge to significant numbers of learners and teachers at each of these schools and create a human resource for the local recruitment of Information Technology expertise.

73 Telephone interview with Benny Watson, H.O.D. Community Library Service, Windhoek, Namibia. 010815

74 Telephone interview with Wilma Deetlefs, Head of Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Information and Broadcasting, 010815

75 Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture, (2001) Strategic Plan 2001-2006, pp 8

76 Telephone interview 010815

77 Interview with Rui Correia at MISA Regional Office 010801

78 Interview with Dr Robert West at MBESC and phone interview with Wilma Deetlefs, Head of Department at MFAIB, 010815

79 Nederveen Pieterse, Jan (2001) Development Theory Deconstructions/Reconstructions. London: Sage, pp 84-85

80 Interview with Hilary Wilder, WorldTeach. 010708

81 Telephone interview with Ritva Niskala, Community Library Service, 010815

82 Jämför Steinar Kvales begrepp "det deskriptiva": "Den kvalitativa forskninsintervjun syftar till att erhålla otolkade beskrivningar. Den intervjuade beskriver så exakt som möjligt vad hon upplever och känner och hur hon handlar...Frågan om varför den intervjuade upplever och handlar som hon gör är främst en uppgift för intervjuaren att söka svar på." Compare Steinar Kvale's concept "the descriptive". "The qualitative research interview aims at obtaining uninterpreted descriptions. The respondent describes as precise as possible what she experiences, feels and how she acts...The question concerning why the respondent experiences and acts as she does is primarily a question for the researcher to find the answer to." Transl.HB

83 Some examples are the British Council, the National Youth Council and the UNESCO office.

84 Interview with Jorn Stabi, Webmaster at the Namibian, 010803

85 Interview with Eve Black, Board Member of Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA) National Chapter in Windhoek, Namibia, 010815

86 "A network is set by interconnected nodes, where crucial network information is gathered, analysed and transmitted". Castells, Manuel (1996): The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp 470

87 Click here for the Digital Freedom Network website. 020421

88 Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture, (2001) Strategic Plan 2001-2006, pp 8